40 CFR § 1090.635 - Refinery extreme unforeseen hardship exemption.
(a) In appropriate extreme, unusual, and unforeseen circumstances (e.g., circumstances like a natural disaster or refinery fire; not financial or supplier difficulties) that are clearly outside the control of the refiner and that could not have been avoided by the exercise of prudence, diligence, and due care, EPA may permit a refiner, for a brief period, to distribute fuel that is exempt from the standards in subparts C and D of this part if all the following requirements are met:
(1) It is in the public interest to do so (e.g., distribution of the nonconforming fuel will not damage vehicles or engines and is necessary to meet projected temporary shortfalls in the supply of the fuel in a state or region of the United States for which the shortfall is unable to otherwise be compensated for).
(2) The refiner exercised prudent planning and was not able to avoid the violation and has taken all reasonable steps to minimize the extent of the nonconformity.
(3) The refiner shows how compliance will be achieved as expeditiously as possible.
(5) The refiner pays to the U.S. Treasury an amount equal to the economic benefit of the nonconformity minus the amount expended under paragraph (a)(4) of this section, in making up the air quality detriment.
(b) Hardship applications under this section must be submitted to EPA as specified in § 1090.10 and must contain a letter signed by the RCO, or their delegate, stating that the information contained in the application is true and accurate to the best of their knowledge.