40 CFR § 129.7 - Requirement and procedure for establishing a more stringent effluent limitation.
(a) In exceptional cases: (1) Where the Regional Administrator (or State Director, if appropriate) determines that the ambient water criterion established in these standards is not being met or will not be met in the receiving water as a result of one or more discharges at levels allowed by these standards, and
(2) Where he further determines that this is resulting in or may cause or contribute to significant adverse effects on aquatic or other organisms usually or potentially present, or on human health, he may issue to an owner or operator a permit or a permit modification containing a toxic pollutant effluent limitation at a more stringent level than that required by the standard set forth in these regulations. Any such action shall be taken pursuant to the procedural provisions of 40 CFR parts 124 and 125, as appropriate. In any proceeding in connection with such action the burden of proof and of going forward with evidence with regard to such more stringent effluent limitation shall be upon the Regional Administrator (or State Director, if appropriate) as the proponent of such more stringent effluent limitation.
(3) Evidence in such proceeding shall include at a minimum: An analysis using data and other information to demonstrate receiving water concentrations of the specified toxic pollutant, projections of the anticipated effects of the proposed modification on such receiving water concentrations, and the hydrologic and hydrographic characteristics of the receiving waters including the occurrence of dispersion of the effluent. Detailed specifications for presenting relevant information by any interested party may be prescribed in guidance documents published from time to time, whose availability will be announced in the Federal Register.
(b) Any effluent limitation in an NPDES permit which a State proposes to issue which is more stringent than the toxic pollutant effluent standards promulgated by the Administrator is subject to review by the Administrator under section 402(d) of the Act. The Administrator may approve or disapprove such limitation(s) or specify another limitation(s) upon review of any record of any proceedings held in connection with the permit issuance or modification and any other evidence available to him. If he takes no action within ninety days of his receipt of the notification of the action of the permit issuing authority and any record thereof, the action of the State permit issuing authority shall be deemed to be approved.