40 CFR 144.12 - Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water.
(a) No owner or operator shall construct, operate, maintain, convert, plug, abandon, or conduct any other injection activity in a manner that allows the movement of fluid containing any contaminant into underground sources of drinking water, if the presence of that contaminant may cause a violation of any primary drinking water regulation under 40 CFR part 142 or may otherwise adversely affect the health of persons. The applicant for a permit shall have the burden of showing that the requirements of this paragraph are met.
(b) For Class I, II, III, and VI wells, if any water quality monitoring of an underground source of drinking water indicates the movement of any contaminant into the underground source of drinking water, except as authorized under part 146, the Director shall prescribe such additional requirements for construction, corrective action, operation, monitoring, or reporting (including closure of the injection well) as are necessary to prevent such movement. In the case of wells authorized by permit, these additional requirements shall be imposed by modifying the permit in accordance with § 144.39, or the permit may be terminated under § 144.40 if cause exists, or appropriate enforcement action may be taken if the permit has been violated. In the case of wells authorized by rule, see §§ 144.21 through 144.24. For EPA administered programs, such enforcement action shall be taken in accordance with appropriate sections of the SDWA.
(c) For Class V wells, if at any time the Director learns that a Class V well may cause a violation of primary drinking water regulations under 40 CFR part 142, he or she shall:
(1) Require the injector to obtain an individual permit;
(2) Order the injector to take such actions (including, where required, closure of the injection well) as may be necessary to prevent the violation. For EPA administered programs, such orders shall be issued in accordance with the appropriate provisions of the SDWA; or
(3) Take enforcement action.
(d) Whenever the Director learns that a Class V well may be otherwise adversely affecting the health of persons, he or she may prescribe such actions as may be necessary to prevent the adverse effect, including any action authorized under paragraph (c) of this section.
(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Director may take emergency action upon receipt of information that a contaminant which is present in or likely to enter a public water system or underground source of drinking water may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to the health of persons. If the Director is an EPA official, he must first determine that the appropriate State and local authorities have not taken appropriate action to protect the health of such persons, before taking emergency action.