40 CFR § 146.84 - Area of review and corrective action.
(a) The area of review is the region surrounding the geologic sequestration project where USDWs may be endangered by the injection activity. The area of review is delineated using computational modeling that accounts for the physical and chemical properties of all phases of the injected carbon dioxide stream and is based on available site characterization, monitoring, and operational data.
(b) The owner or operator of a Class VI well must prepare, maintain, and comply with a plan to delineate the area of review for a proposed geologic sequestration project, periodically reevaluate the delineation, and perform corrective action that meets the requirements of this section and is acceptable to the Director. The requirement to maintain and implement an approved plan is directly enforceable regardless of whether the requirement is a condition of the permit. As a part of the permit application for approval by the Director, the owner or operator must submit an area of review and corrective action plan that includes the following information:
(1) The method for delineating the area of review that meets the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section, including the model to be used, assumptions that will be made, and the site characterization data on which the model will be based;
(2) A description of:
(ii) The monitoring and operational conditions that would warrant a reevaluation of the area of review prior to the next scheduled reevaluation as determined by the minimum fixed frequency established in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section.
(iii) How monitoring and operational data (e.g., injection rate and pressure) will be used to inform an area of review reevaluation; and
(iv) How corrective action will be conducted to meet the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section, including what corrective action will be performed prior to injection and what, if any, portions of the area of review will have corrective action addressed on a phased basis and how the phasing will be determined; how corrective action will be adjusted if there are changes in the area of review; and how site access will be guaranteed for future corrective action.
(1) Predict, using existing site characterization, monitoring and operational data, and computational modeling, the projected lateral and vertical migration of the carbon dioxide plume and formation fluids in the subsurface from the commencement of injection activities until the plume movement ceases, until pressure differentials sufficient to cause the movement of injected fluids or formation fluids into a USDW are no longer present, or until the end of a fixed time period as determined by the Director. The model must:
(i) Be based on detailed geologic data collected to characterize the injection zone(s), confining zone(s) and any additional zones; and anticipated operating data, including injection pressures, rates, and total volumes over the proposed life of the geologic sequestration project;
(ii) Take into account any geologic heterogeneities, other discontinuities, data quality, and their possible impact on model predictions; and
(iii) Consider potential migration through faults, fractures, and artificial penetrations.
(2) Using methods approved by the Director, identify all penetrations, including active and abandoned wells and underground mines, in the area of review that may penetrate the confining zone(s). Provide a description of each well's type, construction, date drilled, location, depth, record of plugging and/or completion, and any additional information the Director may require; and
(3) Determine which abandoned wells in the area of review have been plugged in a manner that prevents the movement of carbon dioxide or other fluids that may endanger USDWs, including use of materials compatible with the carbon dioxide stream.
(d) Owners or operators of Class VI wells must perform corrective action on all wells in the area of review that are determined to need corrective action, using methods designed to prevent the movement of fluid into or between USDWs, including use of materials compatible with the carbon dioxide stream, where appropriate.
(e) At the minimum fixed frequency, not to exceed five years, as specified in the area of review and corrective action plan, or when monitoring and operational conditions warrant, owners or operators must:
(4) Submit an amended area of review and corrective action plan or demonstrate to the Director through monitoring data and modeling results that no amendment to the area of review and corrective action plan is needed. Any amendments to the area of review and corrective action plan must be approved by the Director, must be incorporated into the permit, and are subject to the permit modification requirements at § 144.39 or § 144.41 of this chapter, as appropriate.
(f) The emergency and remedial response plan (as required by § 146.94) and the demonstration of financial responsibility (as described by § 146.85) must account for the area of review delineated as specified in paragraph (c)(1) of this section or the most recently evaluated area of review delineated under paragraph (e) of this section, regardless of whether or not corrective action in the area of review is phased.