40 CFR 158.70 - Satisfying data requirements.
(a) General policy. The Agency will determine whether the data submitted or cited to fulfill the data requirements specified in this part are acceptable. This determination will be based on the design and conduct of the experiment from which the data were derived, and an evaluation of whether the data fulfill the purpose(s) of the data requirement. In evaluating experimental design, the Agency will consider whether generally accepted methods were used, sufficient numbers of measurements were made to achieve statistical reliability, and sufficient controls were built into all phases of the experiment. The Agency will evaluate the conduct of each experiment in terms of whether the study was conducted in conformance with the design, good laboratory practices were observed, and results were reproducible. The Agency will not reject data merely because they were derived from studies which, when initiated, were in accordance with an Agency-recommended protocol, even if the Agency subsequently recommends a different protocol, as long as the data fulfill the purposes of the requirements as described in this paragraph.
(1) The provisions in this part 158 should be read in conjunction with the provisions in § 152.85 to claim eligibility for the formulators' exemption.
(b) Good laboratory practices. Applicants must adhere to the good laboratory practice (GLP) standards described in 40 CFR part 160 when conducting studies. Applicants must also adhere to GLP standards when conducting a study in support of a waiver request of any data requirement which is within the scope of the GLP requirements.
(c) Agency guidelines. EPA has published Test Guidelines that contain standards for conducting acceptable tests, guidance on the evaluation and reporting of data, definition of terms, and suggested study protocols. Copies of the Test Guidelines may be obtained by visiting the agency's website at www.epa.gov/pesticides.
(d) Study protocols -
(1) General. Any appropriate protocol may be used to generate the data required by this part, provided that it meets the purpose of the test standards specified in the pesticide assessment guidelines, and provides data of suitable quality and completeness as typified by the protocols cited in the guidelines. Applicants should use the test procedure which is most suitable for evaluation of the particular ingredient, mixture, or product. Accordingly, failure to follow a suggested protocol will not invalidate a test if another appropriate methodology is used.
(2) Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) protocols. Tests conducted in accordance with the requirements and recommendations of the applicable OECD protocols can be used to develop data necessary to meet the requirements specified in this part. Applicants should note, however, that certain of the OECD recommended test standards, such as test duration and selection of test species, are less restrictive than those recommended by EPA. Therefore, when using OECD protocols, care should be taken to observe the test standards in a manner such that the data generated by the study will satisfy the requirements of this part.
(e) Combining studies. Certain toxicology studies may be combined to satisfy data requirements. For example, carcinogenicity studies in rats may be combined with the rat chronic toxicity study. Combining appropriate studies may be expected to reduce usage of test animals as well as reduce the cost of studies. EPA encourages this practice by including standards for acceptable combined tests in the Pesticide Assessment Guidelines. Registrants and applicants are encouraged to consider combining other tests when practical and likely to produce scientifically acceptable results. Registrants and applicants, however, must consult with the EPA before initiating combined studies.