40 CFR 57.402 - Elements of the supplementary control system.
Each supplementary control system shall contain the following elements:
(a) Air quality monitoring network. An approvable SCS shall include the use of appropriate ambient air quality monitors to continuously measure the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the air in the smelter's DLA.
(1) The monitors shall be located at all points of expected SO2 concentrations necessary to anticipate and prevent possible violations of NAAQS anywhere in the smelter's DLA. The determination of the locations where such concentrations may occur shall take into account all recorded or probable meteorological and operating conditions (including bypassing of control equipment), as well as the presence of other sources of SO2 significantly affecting SO2 concentrations in the DLA.
(2) The number and location of sites shall be based on dispersion modeling, measured ambient air quality data, meteorological information, and the results of the continuing review required by paragraph (f) of this section. The system shall include the use of at least 7 fixed monitors unless the issuing agency determines, on the basis of a demonstration by the smelter owner, that the use of fewer monitors would not limit coverage of points of high SO2 concentration or otherwise reduce the capability of the smelter owner to prevent any violations of the NAAQS in the smelter's DLA.
(3) All monitors shall be continuously operated and maintained and shall meet the performance specifications contained in 40 CFR part 53. The monitors shall be capable of routine real time measurement of maximum expected SO2 concentrations for the averaging times of SO2 NAAQS.
(b) Meteorological network. The SCS must have a meteorological assessment capability adequate to predict and identify local conditions requiring emission curtailment to prevent possible violations of the NAAQS. The meteorological assessment capability shall provide all forecast and current information necessary for successful use of the SCS operational manual required by paragraph (e) of this section.
(c) Designated liability area. The system shall be required to prevent all violations of the NAAQS within the smelter's DLA. The DLA of any smelter is the area within which the smelter's emissions may cause or significantly contribute to violations of the NAAQS for SO2 when the smelter is operating at its maximum production capacity under any recorded or probable meterological conditions. The boundaries of that area shall be specified in the NSO.
(1) Unless an acceptable demonstration is made under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the DLA shall be a circle with a center point at the smelter's tallest stack and a minimum radius as given in the following table:
Radius for SO2 Emissions at Maximum Production Capacity 1
|Emissions rate in tons per hour||Emission rate in grains per sec.||Radius in kilometers|
|16 or less||4,000 or less||11|
|48 or more||12,000 or more||40|
1 Maximum emission rates for periods not to exceed 24 hours. Minimum radii may be determined from the table by linear interpolation.
(2) The NSO may provide for a DLA with different boundaries if the smelter owner can demonstrate through the use of appropriate dispersion modeling and ambient air quality monitoring data that the smelter's controlled emissions could not cause or significantly contribute to a violation of the NAAQS beyond the boundaries of such a different area under any recorded or probable meteorological conditions.
(3) A violation of the NAAQS in the DLA of any smelter shall constitute a violation of that smelter's NSO, unless the issuing agency determines on the basis of a showing by the smelter owner that the smelter owner had taken all emission curtailment action indicated by the SCS operational manual and that the violation was caused in significant part by:
(i) Emissions of another source(s) which were in excess of the maximum permissible emissions applicable to such source(s),
(ii) Fugitive emissions of another source(s), or
(iii) The smelter's own fugitive emissions: Provided, that the smelter is in compliance with all requirements of or under subpart E of this part.
(4) For the purposes of this section, maximum permissible emissions for other sources are the highest of:
(i) SIP emission limitation;
(ii) Orders in effect under section 113(d) of the Clean Air Act; or
(d) Overlapping designated liability areas. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart, the following requirements shall apply whenever the designated liability areas of 2 or more smelters do, or may, overlap:
(1) In the case of any NSO applicant that would have a DLA which would overlap with the DLA of any other smelter that has applied for an NSO or has an NSO in effect, the NSO applicant shall include in its application an enforceable joint plan, agreed to by such other smelter(s). In determining whether a joint plan is required, the NSO applicant shall calculate its DLA according to the table in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. The DLA of the other smelter shall be calculated according to the table in paragraph (c)(1) unless the other smelter has an NSO in effect, in which case the boundaries in that NSO shall be used. The enforceable joint plan shall provide for:
(i) Emission curtailment adequate to ensure that the NAAQS will not be violated in any areas of overlapping DLAs; and
(ii) Conclusive prospective allocation of legal liability in the event that the NAAQS are violated in the area of overlapping DLAs.
(2) In the case of any NSO applicant that would have a DLA which would overlap with the DLA of any other smelter whose owner has not applied for an NSO (and does not have an NSO in effect), the NSO applicant's submittal shall contain a written consent, signed by a corporate official empowered to do so. The consent shall state that if, at any time thereafter, the owner of the other smelter applies for an NSO, and the other smelter's DLA would overlap with the NSO applicant's DLA, the NSO applicant will negotiate and submit an enforceable joint plan for emission curtailment and allocation of liability (as described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section). In determining whether it is necessary to submit such a consent, each smelter's DLA shall be calculated according to the table set forth in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. The consent shall state that a joint plan shall be submitted within 90 days of the issuing agency's notification to the NSO applicant of receipt of the other smelter's letter of intent, unless the issuing agency determines that the DLAs do not overlap. Failure of the NSO applicant to submit such a plan shall constitute grounds for denial of its NSO application or a violation of an effective NSO, as applicable.
(e) The SCS operational manual. Each NSO shall require the smelter to be operated in accordance with the provisions of an SCS operational manual approved by the issuing agency. The SCS operational manual shall describe the circumstances under which, the extent to which, and the procedures through which emissions shall be curtailed to prevent violations of the NAAQS in the smelter's DLA. Failure to curtail emissions when and as much as indicated by the manual or to follow the provisions of the manual implementing the requirements of paragraph (e)(3) of this section shall constitute a violation of the NSO.
(1) The operational manual shall prescribe emission curtailment decisions based on the use of real time information from the air quality monitoring network dispersion model estimates of the effect of emissions on air quality, and meteorological observations and predictions.
(2) The operational manual shall also provide for emission curtailment to prevent violation of the NAAQS within the smelter's DLA which may be caused in part by stack emissions, and to the extent practicable fugitive emissions, from any other source (unless that other source is a smelter subject to an NSO).
(3) The SCS operational manual shall include (but not be limited to):
(i) A clear delineation of the authority of the SCS operator to require all other smelter personnel to implement the operator's curtailment decisions;
(ii) The maintenance and calibration procedures and schedules for all SCS equipment;
(iii) A description of the procedures to be followed for the regular acquisition of all meteorological information necessary to operate the system;
(iv) The ambient concentrations and meteorological conditions that will be used as criteria for determining the need for various degrees of emission curtailment;
(v) The meteorological variables as to which judgments may be made in applying the criteria stated pursuant to paragraph (e)(3)(iv) of this section;
(vi) The procedures through which and the maximum time period within which a curtailment decision will be made and implemented by the SCS operator;
(vii) The method for immediately evaluating the adequacy of a particular curtailment decision, including the factors to be considered in that evaluation;
(viii) The procedures through which and the time within which additional necessary curtailment will immediately be effected; and
(ix) The procedures to be followed to protect the NAAQS in the event of a mechanical failure in any element of the SCS.
(f) Continuing review and improvement of the SCS. Each NSO shall require the smelter owner to conduct an active program to continuously review the design and operation of the SCS to determine what measures may be available for improving the performance of the system. Among the elements of this program shall be measures to locate and examine possible places both inside and outside the DLA where unmonitored NAAQS violations may be occurring. Such measures shall include the use of modeling as appropriate and mobile ambient air quality monitors, following up on information and complaints from members of the public, and other appropriate activities. The NSO shall also require the submission of a semi-annual report to the issuing agency detailing the results of this review and specifying measures implemented to prevent the recurrence of any violations of NAAQS.