# 40 CFR § 63.11647 - What are my monitoring requirements?

§ 63.11647 What are my monitoring requirements?

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(5) of this section, you must monitor each roaster for mercury emissions using one of the procedures in paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(3) of this section and establish operating limits for mercury concentration as described in paragraph (a)(4) of this section.

(1) Perform sampling and analysis of the roaster's exhaust for mercury concentration using EPA Performance Specification 12B (40 CFR part 60, appendix B and Procedure 5 of appendix F) or EPA Method 30B (40 CFR part 60, appendix A-8) at least twice per month. A minimum of two measurements must be taken per month that are at least 11 days apart from other consecutive tests. The mercury concentration must be maintained below the operating limit established in paragraph (a)(4) of this section. The results of the sampling must be obtained within 72 hours of the time the sample is taken.

(i) To determine the appropriate sampling duration, you must review the available data from previous stack tests to determine the upper 99th percentile of the range of mercury concentrations in the exit stack gas. Based on this upper end of expected concentrations, select an appropriate sampling duration that is likely to provide a valid sample and not result in breakthrough of the sampling tubes. If breakthrough of the sampling tubes occurs, you must re-sample within 7 days using a shorter sampling duration.

(ii) If any mercury concentration measurement from the twice per month sampling with PS 12B or Method 30B is higher than the operating limit, the exceedance must be reported to the permit authority as a deviation and corrective actions must be implemented within 48 hours upon receipt of the sampling results. Moreover, within 96 hours of the exceedance, the owner or operator must measure the concentration again (with PS 12B (40 CFR part 60, appendix B and Procedure 5 of appendix F), Method 30B or Method 29 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A-8), or ASTM D6784(incorporated by reference - see § 63.14)) and demonstrate to the permit authority that the mercury concentration is no higher than the operating limit, or inform the permit authority that the limit continues to be exceeded. If the measured mercury concentration exceeds the operating limit for mercury concentration after these 96 hours, the exceedance must be reported as a deviation within 24 hours to the permitting authority. The owner or operator must conduct a full compliance test pursuant to § 63.11646(a) for the roaster operations within 40 days to determine if the affected source is in compliance with the MACT emission standard. For facilities that have roasters and autoclaves, the owner or operator can use the results of the previous compliance test for the autoclaves to determine the emissions for those process units to be used in the calculations of the emissions for the affected source. If the source is determined to be in compliance, the compliance test may also be used to establish a new operating limit for mercury concentration (in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section).

(2) Install, operate, calibrate, and maintain a continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS) to continuously measure the mercury concentration in the final exhaust stream from each roaster according to the requirements of Performance Specification 12A (40 CFR part 60, appendix B) except that calibration standards traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology are not required. You must perform a data accuracy assessment of the CEMS according to section 5 of Appendix F in part 60 and follow the applicable monitoring requirements in § 63.8 as provided in Table 1 to subpart EEEEEEE.

(i) You must continuously monitor the daily average mercury concentration from the roaster and maintain the daily average concentration below the operating limit established in paragraph (a)(4) of this section.

(ii) If the daily average mercury concentration from the CEMs is higher than the operating limit, the exceedance must be reported to the permit authority as a deviation and corrective actions must be implemented within 48 hours upon receipt of the sampling results. Moreover, within 96 hours of the exceedance, the owner or operator must measure the concentration again (with the CEMs (40 CFR part 60, appendix B and Procedure 5 of appendix F) and demonstrate to the permit authority that the mercury concentration is no higher than the operating limit, or inform the permit authority that the limit continues to be exceeded. If the measured mercury concentration exceeds the operating limit for mercury concentration after these 96 hours, the exceedance must be reported as a deviation within 24 hours to the permitting authority, and the owner or operator must conduct a full compliance test pursuant to § 63.11646(a) for the roaster operations within 40 days to determine if the affected source is in compliance with the MACT emission standard. For facilities that have roasters and autoclaves, the owner or operator can use the results of the previous compliance test for the autoclaves to determine the emissions for those process units to be used in the calculations of the emissions for the affected source. If the source is determined to be in compliance, the compliance test results may also be used to establish a new operating limit for mercury concentration (in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section).

(iii) You must submit a monitoring plan that includes quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) procedures sufficient to demonstrate the accuracy of the CEMS to your permitting authority for approval 180 days prior to your initial compliance test. At a minimum, the QA/QC procedures must include daily calibrations and an annual accuracy test for the CEMS.

(3) Continuously measure the mercury concentration in the final exhaust stream from each roaster using EPA Performance Specification 12B (40 CFR part 60 appendix B and Procedure 5 of appendix F).

(i) You must continuously measure the mercury concentration in the roaster exhaust and maintain the average daily mercury concentration below the operating limit established in paragraph (a)(4) of this section. To determine the appropriate sampling duration, you must review the available data from previous stack tests to determine the upper 99th percentile of the range of mercury concentrations in the exit stack gas. Based on this upper end of expected concentrations, select an appropriate sampling duration that is likely to provide a valid sample and not result in breakthrough of the sampling tubes. If breakthrough of the sampling tubes occurs, you must re-sample within 7 days using a shorter sampling duration.

(ii) If the daily average mercury concentration is higher than the operating limit, the exceedance must be reported to the permit authority as a deviation and corrective actions must be implemented within 48 hours upon receipt of the sampling results. Moreover, within 96 hours of the exceedance, the owner or operator must measure the concentration again with PS 12B (40 CFR part 60, appendix B and Procedure 5 of appendix F), Method 30B or Method 29 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A-8), or ASTM D6784(incorporated by reference - see § 63.14) and demonstrate to the permit authority that the mercury concentration is no higher than the operating limit, or inform the permit authority that the limit continues to be exceeded. If the measured mercury concentration exceeds the operating limit for mercury concentration after these 96 hours, the exceedance must be reported as a deviation within 24 hours to the permitting authority and the owner or operator must conduct a full compliance test pursuant to § 63.11646(a) for the roaster operations within 40 days to determine if the affected source is in compliance with the MACT emission standard. For facilities that have roasters and autoclaves, the owner or operator can use the results of the previous compliance test for the autoclaves to determine the emissions for those process units to be used in the calculations of the emissions for the affected source. If the source is determined to be in compliance, the compliance test results may also be used to establish a new operating limit for mercury concentration (in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section).

(4) Use Equation (2) of this section to establish an upper operating limit for mercury concentration as determined by using the procedures in paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(3) of this section concurrently while you are conducting your annual compliance performance stack tests according to the procedures in § 63.11646(a).

$\mathrm{OLR}={C}_{\mathrm{test}}*\left(\mathrm{EL}/\mathrm{CT}\right)\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{(Eq 2)}$

Where:
OLR = mercury concentration operating limit for the roaster (or roasters that share a common stack) (in micrograms per cubic meter);
Ctest = average mercury concentration measured by the monitoring procedures (PS 12A or PS 12B or 30B) during the compliance performance stack test (in micrograms per cubic meter);
EL = emission standard for ore pretreatment processes (in lb/million tons of ore);
CT = compliance test results for ore pretreatment processes (in lb/million tons of ore).

(5) For roasters that utilize calomel-based mercury control systems for emissions controls, you are not required to perform the monitoring for mercury emissions in paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(3) of this section if you demonstrate to the satisfaction of your permitting authority that mercury emissions from the roaster are less than 10 pounds of mercury per million tons of ore throughput. If you make this demonstration, you must conduct the parametric monitoring as described below in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(i) The initial demonstration must include three or more consecutive independent stack tests for mercury at least one month apart on the roaster exhaust stacks. Subsequent demonstrations may be based upon the single stack test required in paragraph (a) of section § 63.11646. The results of each of the tests must be less than 10 pounds of mercury per million tons of ore. The testing must be performed according to the procedures in § 63.11646(a)(1) through (a)(4) to determine mercury emissions in pounds per hour.

(ii) Divide the mercury emission rate in pounds per hour by the ore throughput rate during the test expressed in millions of tons per hour to determine the emissions in pounds per million tons of ore.

(b) For facilities with roasters and a calomel-based mercury control system that choose to monitor for mercury emissions using the procedures in paragraph (a)(1) of this section or that qualify for and choose to follow the requirements in paragraph (a)(5) of this section, you must establish operating parameter limits for scrubber liquor flow (or line pressure) and scrubber inlet gas temperature and monitor these parameters. You may establish your operating parameter limits from the initial compliance test, according to the manufacturer's specifications, or based on limits established by the permitting authority. If you choose to establish your operating parameter limits from the initial compliance test, monitor the scrubber liquor flow (or line pressure) and scrubber inlet gas temperature during each run of your initial compliance test. The minimum operating limit for scrubber liquor flow rate (or line pressure) is either the lowest value during any run of the initial compliance test or 10 percent less than the average value measured during the compliance test, and your maximum scrubber inlet temperature limit is the highest temperature measured during any run of the initial compliance test or 10 percent higher than the average value measured during the compliance test. You must monitor the scrubber liquor flow rate (or line pressure) and scrubber inlet gas temperature hourly and maintain the scrubber liquor flow (or line pressure) at or above the established operating parameter and maintain the inlet gas temperature below the established operating parameter limit.

(c) For facilities with roasters and a calomel-based mercury control system that choose to monitor for mercury emissions using the procedures in paragraph (a)(1) of this section or that qualify for and follow the requirements in paragraph (a)(5) of this section, you must establish operating parameter ranges for mercuric ion and chloride ion concentrations or for oxidation reduction potential and pH using the procedures in paragraph (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section respectively.

(1) Establish the mercuric ion concentration and chloride ion concentration ranges for each calomel-based mercury control system. The mercuric ion concentration and chloride ion concentration ranges for each calomel-based mercury control system must be based on the manufacturer's specifications, or based on approval by your permitting authority. Measure the mercuric ion concentration and chloride ion concentrations at least once during each run of your initial compliance test. The measurements must be within the established concentration range for mercuric ion concentration and chloride ion concentration. Subsequently, you must sample at least once daily and maintain the mercuric ion concentration and chloride ion concentrations within their established range.

(2) Establish the oxidation reduction potential and pH range for each calomel-based mercury control system. The oxidation reduction potential and pH range for each calomel-based mercury control system must be based on the manufacturer's specifications, or based on approval by your permitting authority. Install monitoring equipment to continuously monitor the oxidation reduction potential and pH of the calomel-based mercury control system scrubber liquor. Measure the oxidation reduction potential and pH of the scrubber liquor during each run of your initial compliance test. The measurements must be within the established range for oxidation reduction potential and pH. Subsequently, you must monitor the oxidation reduction potential and pH of the scrubber liquor continuously and maintain it within the established operating range.

(d) If you have an exceedance of a control device operating parameter range provided in paragraphs (b) or (c) of this section, you must take corrective action and bring the parameters back into the established parametric ranges. If the corrective actions taken following an exceedance do not result in the operating parameter value being returned within the established range within 48 hours, a mercury concentration measurement (with PS 12B or PS 12A CEMS (40 CFR part 60, appendix B and Procedure 5 of appendix F), Method 30B or Method 29 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A-8), or ASTM D6784 (incorporated by reference - see § 63.14)) must be made to determine if the operating limit for mercury concentration is being exceeded. The measurement must be performed and the mercury concentration determined within 48 hours (after the initial 48 hours, or a total of 96 hours from the time the parameter range was exceeded). If the measured mercury concentration meets the operating limit for mercury concentration established under § 63.11647(a)(4), the corrective actions are deemed successful, and the owner or operator can request the permit authority to establish a new limit or range for the parameter. If the measured mercury concentration exceeds the operating limit for mercury concentration after these 96 hours, the exceedance must be reported as a deviation within 24 hours to the permitting authority and the owner or operator must conduct a full compliance test pursuant to § 63.11646(a) for the roaster operations within 40 days to determine if the affected source is in compliance with the MACT emission standard. For facilities that have roasters and autoclaves, the owner or operator can use the results of the previous compliance test for the autoclaves to determine the emissions for those process units to be used in the calculations of the emissions for the affected source. If the source is determined to be in compliance with the MACT emission standard, the compliance test may also be used to establish a new operating limit for mercury concentration (see paragraph (e) of this section).

(e) You may submit a request to your permitting authority for approval to change the operating limits established under paragraph (a)(4) of this section for the monitoring required in paragraph (a)(1),(a)(2), or (a)(3) of this section. In the request, you must demonstrate that the proposed change to the operating limit detects changes in levels of mercury emission control. An approved change to the operating limit under this paragraph only applies until a new operating limit is established during the next annual compliance test.

(f) You must monitor each process unit at each new and existing affected source that uses a carbon adsorber to control mercury emissions using the procedures in paragraphs (f)(1) or (f)(2) of this section. A carbon adsorber may include a fixed carbon bed, carbon filter packs or modules, carbon columns, and other variations.

(1) Continuously sample and analyze the exhaust stream from the carbon adsorber for mercury using Method 30B (40 CFR part 60, appendix A-8) for a duration of at least the minimum sampling time specified in Method 30B and up to one week that includes the period of the annual performance test.

(i) Establish an upper operating limit for the process as determined using the mercury concentration measurements from the sorbent trap (Method 30B) as calculated from Equation (3) of this section.

$\mathrm{OLR}={C}_{\mathrm{trap}}*\left(\mathrm{EL}/\mathrm{CT}\right)\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{(Eq 3)}$

Where:
OLC = mercury concentration operating limit for the carbon adsorber control device on the process as measured using the sorbent trap, (micrograms per cubic meter);
Ctrap = average mercury concentration measured using the sorbent trap during the week that includes the compliance performance test, (micrograms per cubic meter);
EL = emission standard for the affected sources (lb/ton of concentrate);
CT = compliance test results for the affected sources (lb/ton of concentrate).

(ii) Sample and analyze the exhaust stream from the carbon adsorber for mercury at least monthly using Method 30B (40 CFR part 60, appendix A-8). When the mercury concentration reaches 75 percent of the operating limit, begin weekly sampling and analysis. When the mercury concentration reaches 90 percent of the operating limit, replace the carbon in the carbon adsorber within 30 days. If mercury concentration exceeds the operating limit, change the carbon in the carbon adsorber within 30 days and report the deviation to your permitting authority.

(2) Conduct an initial sampling of the carbon in the carbon bed for mercury 90 days after the replacement of the carbon. A representative sample must be collected from the inlet of the bed and the exit of the bed and analyzed using SW-846 Method 7471B (incorporated by reference - see § 63.14). The depth to which the sampler is inserted must be recorded. The design capacity is established by calculating the average carbon loading from the inlet and outlet measurements. Sampling and analysis of the carbon bed for mercury must be performed quarterly thereafter. When the carbon loading reaches 50 percent of the design capacity of the carbon, monthly sampling must be performed until 90 percent of the carbon loading capacity is reached. The carbon must be removed and replaced with fresh carbon no later than 30 days after reaching 90 percent of capacity. For carbon designs where there may be multiple carbon columns or beds, a representative sample may be collected from the first and last column or bed instead of the inlet or outlet. If the carbon loading exceeds the design capacity of the carbon, change the carbon within 30 days and report the deviation to your permitting authority.

(h) For each wet scrubber at each new and existing affected source not followed by a mercury control system, you must monitor the water flow rate (or line pressure) and pressure drop. Establish a minimum value as the operating limit for water flow rate (or line pressure) and pressure drop either during the performance test required in § 63.11646(a), according to the manufacturer's specifications, or as approved by your permitting authority. If you choose to establish the operating limit based on the results of the performance test, the new operating limit must be established based on either the lowest value during any test run or 10 percent less than the average value measured during the test. For wet scrubbers on an autoclave, establish the pressure drop range according to manufacturer's specifications. You must monitor the water flow rate and pressure drop once per shift and take corrective action within 24 hours if any daily average is less than the operating limit. If the parameters are not in range within 72 hours, the owner or operator must report the deviation to the permitting authority and perform a compliance test for the process unit(s) controlled with the wet scrubber that has the parameter exceedance within 40 days to determine if the affected source is in compliance with the MACT limit. For the other process units included in the affected source, the owner or operator can use the results of the previous compliance test to determine the emissions for those process units to be used in the calculations of the emissions for the affected source.

(i) You may conduct additional compliance tests according to the procedures in § 63.11646 and re-establish the operating limits required in paragraphs (a) through (c) and (f) through (h) of this section at any time. You must submit a request to your permitting authority for approval to re-establish the operating limits. In the request, you must demonstrate that the proposed change to the operating limit detects changes in levels of mercury emission control. An approved change to the operating limit under this paragraph only applies until a new operating limit is established during the next annual compliance test.