40 CFR § 63.2490 - What requirements must I meet for heat exchange systems?

§ 63.2490 What requirements must I meet for heat exchange systems?

(a) You must comply with each requirement in Table 10 to this subpart that applies to your heat exchange systems, except as specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section.

(b) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, if you comply with the requirements of § 63.104 as specified in Table 10 to this subpart, then the phrase “a chemical manufacturing process unit meeting the conditions of § 63.100 (b)(1) through (b)(3) of this subpart” in § 63.104(a) means “an MCPU meeting the conditions of § 63.2435” for the purposes of this subpart.

(c) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, if you comply with the requirements of § 63.104 as specified in Table 10 to this subpart, then the reference to “§ 63.100(c)” in § 63.104(a) does not apply for the purposes of this subpart.

(d) Unless one or more of the conditions specified in § 63.104(a)(1), (2), (5), and (6) are met, beginning no later than the compliance dates specified in § 63.2445(g), the requirements of § 63.104 as specified in Table 10 to this subpart and paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section no longer apply. Instead, you must monitor the cooling water for the presence of total strippable hydrocarbons that indicate a leak according to paragraph (d)(1) of this section, and if you detect a leak, then you must repair it according to paragraphs (d)(2) and (3) of this section, unless repair is delayed according to paragraph (d)(4) of this section. At any time before the compliance dates specified in § 63.2445(g), you may choose to comply with the requirements in this paragraph (d) in lieu of the requirements of § 63.104 as specified in Table 10 to this subpart and paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. The requirements in this paragraph (d) do not apply to heat exchange systems that have a maximum cooling water flow rate of 10 gallons per minute or less.

(1) You must perform monitoring to identify leaks of total strippable hydrocarbons from each heat exchange system subject to the requirements of this subpart according to the procedures in paragraphs (d)(1)(i) through (v) of this section.

(i) Monitoring locations for closed-loop recirculation heat exchange systems. For each closed loop recirculating heat exchange system, you must collect and analyze a sample from the location(s) described in either paragraph (d)(1)(i)(A) or (B) of this section.

(A) Each cooling tower return line or any representative riser within the cooling tower prior to exposure to air for each heat exchange system.

(B) Selected heat exchanger exit line(s), so that each heat exchanger or group of heat exchangers within a heat exchange system is covered by the selected monitoring location(s).

(ii) Monitoring locations for once-through heat exchange systems. For each once-through heat exchange system, you must collect and analyze a sample from the location(s) described in paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(A) of this section. You may also elect to collect and analyze an additional sample from the location(s) described in paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(B) of this section.

(A) Selected heat exchanger exit line(s), so that each heat exchanger or group of heat exchangers within a heat exchange system is covered by the selected monitoring location(s). The selected monitoring location may be at a point where discharges from multiple heat exchange systems are combined provided that the combined cooling water flow rate at the monitoring location does not exceed 40,000 gallons per minute.

(B) The inlet water feed line for a once-through heat exchange system prior to any heat exchanger. If multiple heat exchange systems use the same water feed (i.e., inlet water from the same primary water source), you may monitor at one representative location and use the monitoring results for that sampling location for all heat exchange systems that use that same water feed.

(iii) Monitoring method. If you comply with the total strippable hydrocarbon concentration leak action level as specified in paragraph (d)(1)(iv) of this section, you must comply with the requirements in paragraph (d)(1)(iii)(A) of this section. If you comply with the total hydrocarbon mass emissions rate leak action level as specified in paragraph (d)(1)(iv) of this section, you must comply with the requirements in paragraphs (d)(1)(iii)(A) and (B) of this section.

(A) You must determine the total strippable hydrocarbon concentration (in parts per million by volume (ppmv) as methane) at each monitoring location using the “Air Stripping Method (Modified El Paso Method) for Determination of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Water Sources” (incorporated by reference - see § 63.14) using a flame ionization detector (FID) analyzer for on-site determination as described in Section 6.1 of the Modified El Paso Method.

(B) You must convert the total strippable hydrocarbon concentration (in ppmv as methane) to a total hydrocarbon mass emissions rate (as methane) using the calculations in Section 7.0 of “Air Stripping Method (Modified El Paso Method) for Determination of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Water Sources” (incorporated by reference - see § 63.14).

(iv) Monitoring frequency and leak action level. For each heat exchange system, you must initially monitor monthly for 6-months beginning upon startup and monitor quarterly thereafter using a leak action level defined as a total strippable hydrocarbon concentration (as methane) in the stripping gas of 6.2 ppmv or, for heat exchange systems with a recirculation rate of 10,000 gallons per minute or less, you may monitor quarterly using a leak action level defined as a total hydrocarbon mass emissions rate from the heat exchange system (as methane) of 0.18 kg/hr. If a leak is detected as specified in paragraph (d)(1)(v) of this section, then you must monitor monthly until the leak has been repaired according to the requirements in paragraph (d)(2) or (3) of this section. Once the leak has been repaired according to the requirements in paragraph (d)(2) or (3) of this section, quarterly monitoring for the heat exchange system may resume. The monitoring frequencies specified in this paragraph (d)(1)(iv) also apply to the inlet water feed line for a once-through heat exchange system, if monitoring of the inlet water feed is elected as provided in paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(B) of this section.

(v) Leak definition. A leak is defined as described in paragraph (d)(1)(v)(A) or (B) of this section, as applicable.

(A) For once-through heat exchange systems for which the inlet water feed is monitored as described in paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(B) of this section, a leak is detected if the difference in the measurement value of the sample taken from a location specified in paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(A) of this section and the measurement value of the corresponding sample taken from the location specified in paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(B) of this section equals or exceeds the leak action level.

(B) For all other heat exchange systems, a leak is detected if a measurement value of the sample taken from a location specified in paragraph (d)(1)(i)(A) or (B) or (d)(1)(ii)(A) of this section equals or exceeds the leak action level.

(2) If a leak is detected using the methods described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section, you must repair the leak to reduce the concentration or mass emissions rate to below the applicable leak action level as soon as practicable, but no later than 45 days after identifying the leak, except as specified in paragraph (d)(4) of this section. Repair must include re- monitoring at the monitoring location where the leak was identified according to the method specified in paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section to verify that the total strippable hydrocarbon concentration or total hydrocarbon mass emissions rate is below the applicable leak action level. Repair may also include performing the additional monitoring in paragraph (d)(3) of this section to verify that the total strippable hydrocarbon concentration or total hydrocarbon mass emissions rate is below the applicable leak action level. Actions that can be taken to achieve repair include but are not limited to:

(i) Physical modifications to the leaking heat exchanger, such as welding the leak or replacing a tube;

(ii) Blocking the leaking tube within the heat exchanger;

(iii) Changing the pressure so that water flows into the process fluid;

(iv) Replacing the heat exchanger or heat exchanger bundle; or

(v) Isolating, bypassing, or otherwise removing the leaking heat exchanger from service until it is otherwise repaired.

(3) If you detect a leak when monitoring a cooling tower return line under paragraph (d)(1)(i)(A) of this section, you may conduct additional monitoring of each heat exchanger or group of heat exchangers associated with the heat exchange system for which the leak was detected, as provided in paragraph (d)(1)(i)(B) of this section. If no leaks are detected when monitoring according to the requirements of paragraph (d)(1)(i)(B) of this section, the heat exchange system is considered to have met the repair requirements through re-monitoring of the heat exchange system, as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

(4) You may delay repair when one of the conditions in paragraph (d)(4)(i) or (ii) of this section is met and the leak is less than the delay of repair action level specified in paragraph (d)(4)(iii) of this section. You must determine if a delay of repair is necessary as soon as practicable, but no later than 45 days after first identifying the leak.

(i) If the repair is technically infeasible without a shutdown and the total strippable hydrocarbon concentration or total hydrocarbon mass emissions rate is initially and remains less than the delay of repair action level for all monitoring periods during the delay of repair, then you may delay repair until the next scheduled shutdown of the heat exchange system. If, during subsequent monitoring, the delay of repair action level is exceeded, then you must repair the leak within 30 days of the monitoring event in which the leak was equal to or exceeded the delay of repair action level.

(ii) If the necessary equipment, parts, or personnel are not available and the total strippable hydrocarbon concentration or total hydrocarbon mass emissions rate is initially and remains less than the delay of repair action level for all monitoring periods during the delay of repair, then you may delay the repair for a maximum of 120 calendar days. You must demonstrate that the necessary equipment, parts, or personnel were not available. If, during subsequent monitoring, the delay of repair action level is exceeded, then you must repair the leak within 30 days of the monitoring event in which the leak was equal to or exceeded the delay of repair action level.

(iii) The delay of repair action level is a total strippable hydrocarbon concentration (as methane) in the stripping gas of 62 ppmv or, for heat exchange systems with a recirculation rate of 10,000 gallons per minute or less, the delay of repair action level is a total hydrocarbon mass emissions rate (as methane) or 1.8 kg/hr. The delay of repair action level is assessed as described in paragraph (d)(4)(iii)(A) or (B) of this section, as applicable.

(A) For once-through heat exchange systems for which the inlet water feed is monitored as described in paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(B) of this section, the delay of repair action level is exceeded if the difference in the measurement value of the sample taken from a location specified in paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(A) of this section and the measurement value of the corresponding sample taken from the location specified in paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(B) of this section equals or exceeds the delay of repair action level.

(B) For all other heat exchange systems, the delay of repair action level is exceeded if a measurement value of the sample taken from a location specified in paragraph (d)(1)(i)(A) or (B) or (d)(1)(ii)(A) of this section equals or exceeds the delay of repair action level.

[85 FR 49145, Aug. 12, 2020]

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