# 40 CFR 98.454 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

*6*or PFCs that are typically weighed on the scale. For scales that are generally used to weigh cylinders containing 115 pounds of gas when full, this equates to ±1 percent of the sum of 115 pounds and approximately 120 pounds tare, or slightly more than ±2 pounds. Account for the tare weights of the containers. You may accept gas masses or weights provided by the gas supplier e.g., for the contents of cylinders containing new gas or for the heels remaining in cylinders returned to the gas supplier) if the supplier provides documentation verifying that accuracy standards are met; however, you remain responsible for the accuracy of these masses and weights under this subpart.

*C*) must be estimated using measurements and/or engineering assessments or calculations based on chemical engineering principles or physical or chemical laws or properties. Such assessments or calculations may be based on, as applicable, the internal volume of hose or line that is open to the atmosphere during coupling and decoupling activities, the internal pressure of the hose or line, the time the hose or line is open to the atmosphere during coupling and decoupling activities, the frequency with which the hose or line is purged and the flow rate during purges. You must develop a value for EF

*c*(or use an industry-developed value) for each combination of hose and valve fitting, to use in Equation SS-5 of this subpart. The value for EF

*C*must be determined for each combination of hose and valve fitting of a given diameter or size. The calculation must be recalculated annually to account for changes to the specifications of the valves or hoses that may occur throughout the year.

*6*or PFC emissions that occur as a result of unexpected events or accidental losses, such as a malfunctioning hose or leak in the flow line, during the filling of equipment or containers for disbursement by including these losses in the estimated mass of SF

*6*or the PFC emitted downstream of the container or flowmeter during the period p.

*6*or the PFC disbursed to customers in new equipment over the period p is determined by assuming that it is equal to the equipment's nameplate capacity or, in cases where equipment is shipped with a partial charge, equal to its partial shipping charge, equipment samples for conducting the nameplate capacity tests must be selected using the following stratified sampling strategy in this paragraph. For each make and model, group the measurement conditions to reflect predictable variability in the facility's filling practices and conditions (e.g., temperatures at which equipment is filled). Then, independently select equipment samples at random from each make and model under each group of conditions. To account for variability, a certain number of these measurements must be performed to develop a robust and representative average nameplate capacity (or shipping charge) for each make, model, and group of conditions. A Student T distribution calculation should be conducted to determine how many samples are needed for each make, model, and group of conditions as a function of the relative standard deviation of the sample measurements. To determine a sufficiently precise estimate of the nameplate capacity, the number of measurements required must be calculated to achieve a precision of one percent of the true mean, using a 95 percent confidence interval. To estimate the nameplate capacity for a given make and model, you must use the lowest mean value among the different groups of conditions, or provide justification for the use of a different mean value for the group of conditions that represents the typical practices and conditions for that make and model. Measurements can be conducted using SF

*6*, another gas, or a liquid. Re-measurement of nameplate capacities should be conducted every five years to reflect cumulative changes in manufacturing methods and conditions over time.

(a) For calendar year 2011 monitoring, you may follow the provisions of § 98.3(d)(1) through (d)(2) for best available monitoring methods rather than follow the monitoring requirements of this section. For purposes of this subpart, any reference in § 98.3(d)(1) through (d)(2) to 2010 means 2011, March 31 means June 30, and April 1 means July 1. Any reference to the effective date in § 98.3(d)(1) through (d)(2) means February 28, 2011.

(b) Ensure that all the quantities required by the equations of this subpart have been measured using either flowmeters with an accuracy and precision of ±1 percent of full scale or better or scales with an accuracy and precision of ±1 percent of the filled weight (gas plus tare) of the containers of SF6 or PFCs that are typically weighed on the scale. For scales that are generally used to weigh cylinders containing 115 pounds of gas when full, this equates to ±1 percent of the sum of 115 pounds and approximately 120 pounds tare, or slightly more than ±2 pounds. Account for the tare weights of the containers. You may accept gas masses or weights provided by the gas supplier e.g., for the contents of cylinders containing new gas or for the heels remaining in cylinders returned to the gas supplier) if the supplier provides documentation verifying that accuracy standards are met; however, you remain responsible for the accuracy of these masses and weights under this subpart.

(c) All flow meters, weigh scales, and combinations of volumetric and density measures that are used to measure or calculate quantities under this subpart must be calibrated using calibration procedures specified by the flowmeter, scale, volumetric or density measure equipment manufacturer. Calibration must be performed prior to the first reporting year. After the initial calibration, recalibration must be performed at the minimum frequency specified by the manufacturer.

(d) For purposes of Equations SS-5 of this subpart, the emission factor for the valve-hose combination (EFC) must be estimated using measurements and/or engineering assessments or calculations based on chemical engineering principles or physical or chemical laws or properties. Such assessments or calculations may be based on, as applicable, the internal volume of hose or line that is open to the atmosphere during coupling and decoupling activities, the internal pressure of the hose or line, the time the hose or line is open to the atmosphere during coupling and decoupling activities, the frequency with which the hose or line is purged and the flow rate during purges. You must develop a value for EFc (or use an industry-developed value) for each combination of hose and valve fitting, to use in Equation SS-5 of this subpart. The value for EFC must be determined for each combination of hose and valve fitting of a given diameter or size. The calculation must be recalculated annually to account for changes to the specifications of the valves or hoses that may occur throughout the year.

(e) Electrical equipment manufacturers and refurbishers must account for SF6 or PFC emissions that occur as a result of unexpected events or accidental losses, such as a malfunctioning hose or leak in the flow line, during the filling of equipment or containers for disbursement by including these losses in the estimated mass of SF6 or the PFC emitted downstream of the container or flowmeter during the period p.

(f) If the mass of SF6 or the PFC disbursed to customers in new equipment over the period p is determined by assuming that it is equal to the equipment's nameplate capacity or, in cases where equipment is shipped with a partial charge, equal to its partial shipping charge, equipment samples for conducting the nameplate capacity tests must be selected using the following stratified sampling strategy in this paragraph. For each make and model, group the measurement conditions to reflect predictable variability in the facility's filling practices and conditions (e.g., temperatures at which equipment is filled). Then, independently select equipment samples at random from each make and model under each group of conditions. To account for variability, a certain number of these measurements must be performed to develop a robust and representative average nameplate capacity (or shipping charge) for each make, model, and group of conditions. A Student T distribution calculation should be conducted to determine how many samples are needed for each make, model, and group of conditions as a function of the relative standard deviation of the sample measurements. To determine a sufficiently precise estimate of the nameplate capacity, the number of measurements required must be calculated to achieve a precision of one percent of the true mean, using a 95 percent confidence interval. To estimate the nameplate capacity for a given make and model, you must use the lowest mean value among the different groups of conditions, or provide justification for the use of a different mean value for the group of conditions that represents the typical practices and conditions for that make and model. Measurements can be conducted using SF6, another gas, or a liquid. Re-measurement of nameplate capacities should be conducted every five years to reflect cumulative changes in manufacturing methods and conditions over time.

(g) Ensure the following QA/QC methods are employed throughout the year:

(1) Procedures are in place and followed to track and weigh all cylinders or other containers at the beginning and end of the year.

(h) You must adhere to the following QA/QC methods for reviewing the completeness and accuracy of reporting:

(1) Review inputs to Equation SS-1 of this subpart to ensure inputs and outputs to the company's system are included.

(2) Do not enter negative inputs and confirm that negative emissions are not calculated. However, the decrease in SF6 inventory may be calculated as negative.

(3) Ensure that beginning-of-year inventory matches end-of-year inventory from the previous year.

(4) Ensure that in addition to SF6 purchased from bulk gas distributors, SF6 returned from equipment users with or inside equipment and SF6 returned from off-site recycling are also accounted for among the total additions.