40 CFR Appendix B to Part 191 - Appendix B to Part 191—Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose

Appendix B to Part 191—Calculation of Annual Committed Effective Dose
I. Equivalent Dose

The calculation of the committed effective dose (CED) begins with the determination of the equivalent dose, HT, to a tissue or organ, T, listed in Table B.2 below by using the equation:

H T = R D T , R · w R

where DT, R is the absorbed dose in rads (one gray, an SI unit, equals 100 rads) averaged over the tissue or organ, T, due to radiation type, R, and wR is the radiation weighting factor which is given in Table B.1 below. The unit of equivalent dose is the rem (sievert, in SI units).

Table B.1—Radiation Weighting Factors, wR1

Radiation type and energy range 2 wR value
Photons, all energies 1
Electrons and muons, all energies 1
Neutrons, energy <10 keV 5
10 keV to 100 keV 10
>100 keV to 2 MeV 20
>2 MeV to 20 MeV 10
>20 MeV 5
Protons, other than recoil protons, >2 MeV 5
Alpha particles, fission fragments, heavy nuclei 20

1 All values relate to the radiation incident on the body or, for internal sources, emitted from the source.

2 See paragraph A14 in ICRP Publication 60 for the choice of values for other radiation types and energies not in the table.

II. Effective Dose

The next step is the calculation of the effective dose, E. The probability of occurrence of a stochastic effect in a tissue or organ is assumed to be proportional to the equivalent dose in the tissue or organ. The constant of proportionality differs for the various tissues of the body, but in assessing health detriment the total risk is required. This is taken into account using the tissue weighting factors, wT in Table B.2, which represent the proportion of the stochastic risk resulting from irradiation of the tissue or organ to the total risk when the whole body is irradiated uniformly and HT is the equivalent dose in the tissue or organ, T, in the equation:

E = w T · H T

Table B.2—Tissue Weighting Factors, wT1

Tissue or organ wT value
Gonads 0.25
Breast 0.15
Red bone marrow 0.12
Lung 0.12
Thyroid 0.03
Bone surfaces 0.03
Remainder 2 0.30

1 The values are considered to be appropriate for protection for individuals of both sexes and all ages.

2 For purposes of calculation, the remainder is comprised of the five tissues or organs not specifically listed in Table B.2 that receive the highest dose equivalents; a weighting factor of 0.06 is applied to each of them, including the various sections of the gastrointestinal tract which are treated as separate organs. This covers all tissues and organs except the hands and forearms, the feet and ankles, the skin and the lens of the eye. The excepted tissues and organs should be excluded from the computation of HE.

III. Annual Committed Tissue or Organ Equivalent Dose

For internal irradiation from incorporated radionuclides, the total absorbed dose will be spread out in time, being gradually delivered as the radionuclide decays. The time distribution of the absorbed dose rate will vary with the radionuclide, its form, the mode of intake and the tissue within which it is incorporated. To take account of this distribution the quantity committed equivalent dose, HΤ(τ) where is the integration time in years following an intake over any particular year, is used and is the integral over time of the equivalent dose rate in a particular tissue or organ that will be received by an individual following an intake of radioactive material into the body. The time period, τ, is taken as 50 years as an average time of exposure following intake:

H T ( τ ) = t 0 t 0 + 50 H T ( t ) dt

for a single intake of activity at time t0 where HT(t) is the relevant equivalent-dose rate in a tissue or organ at time t. For the purposes of this part, the previously mentioned single intake may be considered to be an annual intake.
IV. Annual Committed Effective Dose

If the committed equivalent doses to the individual tissues or organs resulting from an annual intake are multiplied by the appropriate weighting factors, wT, and then summed, the result will be the annual committed effective dose, E(τ):

E ( τ ) = T w T · H T ( τ ) .

[58 FR 66415, Dec. 20, 1993]