40 CFR Appendix C to Part 60, Determination of Emission Rate Change

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Appendix C to Part 60 - Determination of Emission Rate Change
1. Introduction

1.1 The following method shall be used to determine whether a physical or operational change to an existing facility resulted in an increase in the emission rate to the atmosphere. The method used is the Student's t test, commonly used to make inferences from small samples.

2. Data

2.1 Each emission test shall consist of n runs (usually three) which produce n emission rates. Thus two sets of emission rates are generated, one before and one after the change, the two sets being of equal size.

2.2 When using manual emission tests, except as provided in § 60.8(b) of this part, the reference methods of appendix A to this part shall be used in accordance with the procedures specified in the applicable subpart both before and after the change to obtain the data.

2.3 When using continuous monitors, the facility shall be operated as if a manual emission test were being performed. Valid data using the averaging time which would be required if a manual emission test were being conducted shall be used.

3. Procedure

3.1 Subscripts a and b denote prechange and postchange respectively.

3.2 Calculate the arithmetic mean emission rate, E, for each set of data using Equation 1.

Where:
Ei = Emission rate for the i th run.
n = number of runs.

3.3 Calculate the sample variance, S2, for each set of data using Equation 2.

3.4 Calculate the pooled estimate, Sp, using Equation 3.

3.5 Calculate the test statistic, t, using Equation 4.

4. Results

4.1 If Eb>,Ea and t>t′, where t′ is the critical value of t obtained from Table 1, then with 95% confidence the difference between Eb and Ea is significant, and an increase in emission rate to the atmosphere has occurred.

Table 1

Degrees of freedom (n a=n b−2) t′ (95 percent confidence level)
2 2.920
3 2.353
4 2.132
5 2.015
6 1.943
7 1.895
8 1.860
For greater than 8 degrees of freedom, see any standard statistical handbook or text.

5.1 Assume the two performance tests produced the following set of data:

Test a Test b
Run 1. 100 115
Run 2. 95 120
Run 3. 110 125

5.2 Using Equation 1 -

Ea = 100 95 110/3 = 102
Eb = 115 120 125/3 = 120

5.3 Using Equation 2 -

Sa2 = (100−102) 2 (95−102) 2 (110−102) 2/3−1 = 58.5
Sb2 = (115−120) 2 (120−120) 2 (125−120) 2/3−1 = 25

5.4 Using Equation 3 -

Sp = [(3 − 1)(58.5) (3 1)(25) / 3 3 − 2] 1/2 = 6.46

5.5 Using Equation 4 -

5.6 Since (n1 n2 − 2) = 4, t′ = 2.132 (from Table 1). Thus since t>t′ the difference in the values of Ea and Eb is significant, and there has been an increase in emission rate to the atmosphere.

6. Continuous Monitoring Data

6.1 Hourly averages from continuous monitoring devices, where available, should be used as data points and the above procedure followed.

[40 FR 58420, Dec. 16, 1975]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

§ 7401 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

§ 7402 - Cooperative activities

§ 7403 - Research, investigation, training, and other activities

§ 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

§ 7405 - Grants for support of air pollution planning and control programs

§ 7406 - Interstate air quality agencies; program cost limitations

§ 7407 - Air quality control regions

§ 7408 - Air quality criteria and control techniques

§ 7409 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7410 - State implementation plans for national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards

§ 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

§ 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants

§ 7413 - Federal enforcement

§ 7414 - Recordkeeping, inspections, monitoring, and entry

§ 7415 - International air pollution

§ 7416 - Retention of State authority

§ 7417 - Advisory committees

§ 7418 - Control of pollution from Federal facilities

§ 7419 - Primary nonferrous smelter orders

§ 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

§ 7421 - Consultation

§ 7422 - Listing of certain unregulated pollutants

§ 7423 - Stack heights

§ 7424 - Assurance of adequacy of State plans

§ 7425 - Measures to prevent economic disruption or unemployment

§ 7426 - Interstate pollution abatement

§ 7427 - Public notification

§ 7428 - State boards

§ 7429 - Solid waste combustion

§ 7430 - Emission factors

§ 7431 - Land use authority

§ 7450 to 7459 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, § 601, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2648

§ 7470 - Congressional declaration of purpose

§ 7471 - Plan requirements

§ 7472 - Initial classifications

§ 7473 - Increments and ceilings

§ 7474 - Area redesignation

§ 7475 - Preconstruction requirements

§ 7476 - Other pollutants

§ 7477 - Enforcement

§ 7478 - Period before plan approval

§ 7479 - Definitions

§ 7491 - Visibility protection for Federal class I areas

§ 7492 - Visibility

§ 7501 - Definitions

§ 7502 - Nonattainment plan provisions in general

§ 7503 - Permit requirements

§ 7504 - Planning procedures

§ 7505 - Environmental Protection Agency grants

§ 7505a - Maintenance plans

§ 7506 - Limitations on certain Federal assistance

§ 7506a - Interstate transport commissions

§ 7507 - New motor vehicle emission standards in nonattainment areas

§ 7508 - Guidance documents

§ 7509 - Sanctions and consequences of failure to attain

§ 7509a - International border areas

§ 7511 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7511a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7511b - Federal ozone measures

§ 7511c - Control of interstate ozone air pollution

§ 7511d - Enforcement for Severe and Extreme ozone nonattainment areas for failure to attain

§ 7511e - Transitional areas

§ 7511f - NOx and VOC study

§ 7512 - Classification and attainment dates

§ 7512a - Plan submissions and requirements

§ 7513 - Classifications and attainment dates

§ 7513a - Plan provisions and schedules for plan submissions

§ 7513b - Issuance of RACM and BACM guidance

§ 7514 - Plan submission deadlines

§ 7514a - Attainment dates

§ 7515 - General savings clause

§ 7521 - Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

§ 7522 - Prohibited acts

§ 7523 - Actions to restrain violations

§ 7524 - Civil penalties

§ 7525 - Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

§ 7541 - Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

§ 7542 - Information collection

§ 7543 - State standards

§ 7544 - State grants

§ 7545 - Regulation of fuels

§ 7546 - Renewable fuel

§ 7547 - Nonroad engines and vehicles

§ 7548 - Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

§ 7549 - High altitude performance adjustments

§ 7550 - Definitions

§ 7551 - Omitted

§ 7552 - Motor vehicle compliance program fees

§ 7553 - Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

§ 7554 - Urban bus standards

§ 7571 - Establishment of standards

§ 7572 - Enforcement of standards

§ 7573 - State standards and controls

§ 7574 - Definitions

§ 7581 - Definitions

§ 7582 - Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7583 - Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

§ 7584 - Administration and enforcement as per California standards

§ 7585 - Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

§ 7586 - Centrally fueled fleets

§ 7587 - Vehicle conversions

§ 7588 - Federal agency fleets

§ 7589 - California pilot test program

§ 7590 - General provisions

§ 7601 - Administration

Title 40 published on 2015-08-22

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR Part 60 after this date.

  • 2016-11-21; vol. 81 # 224 - Monday, November 21, 2016
    1. 81 FR 83160 - Revisions to Procedure 2—Quality Assurance Requirements for Particulate Matter Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources
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      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Direct final rule.
      This rule is effective on February 21, 2017 without further notice, unless the EPA receives adverse comment by December 21, 2016. If the EPA receives adverse comment, we will publish a timely withdrawal in the Federal Register informing the public that the rule will not take effect.
      40 CFR Part 60

Title 40 published on 2015-08-22.

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 40.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2016-11-21; vol. 81 # 224 - Monday, November 21, 2016
    1. 81 FR 83160 - Revisions to Procedure 2—Quality Assurance Requirements for Particulate Matter Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources
      GPO FDSys: XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Direct final rule.
      This rule is effective on February 21, 2017 without further notice, unless the EPA receives adverse comment by December 21, 2016. If the EPA receives adverse comment, we will publish a timely withdrawal in the Federal Register informing the public that the rule will not take effect.
      40 CFR Part 60