42 CFR 1001.1601 - Violations of the limitations on physician charges.
(a) Circumstance for exclusion.
(1) The OIG may exclude a physician whom it determines -
(i) Is a non-participating physician under section 1842(j) of the Act;
(ii) Furnished services to a beneficiary;
(iii) Knowingly and willfully billed -
(A) On a repeated basis for such services actual charges in excess of the maximum allowable actual charge determined in accordance with section 1842(j)(1)(C) of the Act for the period January 1, 1987 through December 31, 1990, or
(B) Individuals enrolled under part B of title XVIII of the Act during the statutory freeze for actual charges in excess of such physician's actual charges determined in accordance with section 1842(j)(1)(A) of the Act for the period July 1, 1984 to December 31, 1986; and”
(iv) Is not the sole community physician or sole source of essential specialized services in the community.
(2) The OIG will take into account access of beneficiaries to physicians' services for which Medicare payment may be made in determining whether to impose an exclusion.
(b) Length of exclusion.
(1) In determining the length of an exclusion in accordance with this section, the OIG will consider the following factors -
(i) The number of services for which the physician billed in excess of the maximum allowable charges;
(ii) The number of beneficiaries for whom services were billed in excess of the maximum allowable charges;
(iii) The amount of the charges that were in excess of the maximum allowable charges;
(iv) Whether the physician has a documented history of criminal, civil or administrative wrongdoing (The lack of any prior record is to be considered neutral); and
(v) The availability of alternative sources of the type of health care items or services furnished by the physician.
(2) The period of exclusion may not exceed 5 years.