42 CFR § 402.111 - Factors considered in determinations regarding the amount of penalties and assessments.
(4) Such other matters as justice may require.
(1) Aggravating circumstances of the incident. An aggravating circumstance is any of the following:
(i) The services or incidents were of several types, occurring over a lengthy period of time.
(iv) Before the incident or presentation of any claim or request for payment subject to imposition of a civil money penalty, the respondent was held liable for criminal, civil, or administrative sanctions in connection with a program covered by this part or any other public or private program of payment for medical services.
(v) There is proof that a respondent engaged in wrongful conduct, other than the specific conduct upon which liability is based, relating to government programs or in connection with the delivery of a health care service. (The statute of limitations governing civil money penalty proceedings does not apply to proof of other wrongful conduct as an aggravating circumstance.)
(2) Mitigating circumstances. The following circumstances are mitigating circumstances:
(i) All the services or incidents subject to a civil money penalty were few in number and of the same type, occurred within a short period of time, and the total amount claimed or requested for the services was less than $1,000.
(ii) The claim or request for payment for the service was the result of an unintentional and unrecognized error in the process of presenting claims or requesting payment and the respondent took corrective steps promptly after discovering the error.
(3) Other matters as justice may require. Other circumstances of an aggravating or mitigating nature are taken into account if, in the interests of justice, they require either a reduction of the penalty or assessment or an increase in order to ensure the achievement of the purposes of this part.
(c) Effect of aggravating or mitigating circumstances. In determining the amount of the penalty and assessment to be imposed for every service or incident subject to a determination under § 402.1(c) -
(1) If there are substantial or several mitigating circumstances, the aggregate amount of the penalty and assessment is set at an amount sufficiently below the maximum permitted by §§ 402.105(a) and 402.107 to reflect that fact.
(2) If there are substantial or several aggravating circumstances, the aggregate amount of the penalty and assessment is set at an amount at or sufficiently close to the maximum permitted by §§ 402.105(a) and 402.107 to reflect that fact.
(1) The standards set forth in this section are binding, except to the extent that their application would result in imposition of an amount that would exceed limits imposed by the United States Constitution.
(2) The amount imposed is not less than the approximate amount required to fully compensate the United States, or any State, for its damages and costs, tangible and intangible, including but not limited to the costs attributable to the investigation, prosecution, and administrative review of the case.