42 CFR § 414.610 - Basis of payment.
(a) Method of payment. Medicare payment for ambulance services is based on the lesser of the actual charge or the applicable fee schedule amount. The fee schedule payment for ambulance services equals a base rate for the level of service plus payment for mileage and applicable adjustment factors. Except for services furnished by certain critical access hospitals or entities owned and operated by them, as described in § 413.70(b) of this chapter, all ambulance services are paid under the fee schedule specified in this subpart (regardless of the vehicle furnishing the service).
(b) Mandatory assignment. Effective with implementation of the ambulance fee schedule described in § 414.601 (that is, for services furnished on or after April 1, 2002), all payments made for ambulance services are made only on an assignment-related basis. Ambulance suppliers must accept the Medicare allowed charge as payment in full and may not bill or collect from the beneficiary any amount other than the unmet Part B deductible and Part B coinsurance amounts. Violations of this requirement may subject the provider or supplier to sanctions, as provided by law (part 402 of this chapter).
(c) Formula for computation of payment amounts. The fee schedule payment amount for ambulance services is computed according to the following provisions:
(1) Ground ambulance service levels. The CF is multiplied by the applicable RVUs for each level of service to produce a service-level base rate.
(i) For services furnished during the period July 1, 2004 through December 31, 2006, ambulance services originating in -
(ii) For services furnished during the period July 1, 2008 through December 31, 2022, ambulance services originating in:
(iii) The service-level base rate is then adjusted by the GAF. Compare this amount to the actual charge. The lesser of the actual charge or the GAF adjusted base rate amount is added to the lesser of the actual mileage charges or the payment rate per mile, multiplied by the number of miles that the beneficiary was transported. When applicable, the appropriate RAF is applied to the ground mileage rate to determine the appropriate payment rates. The RVU scale for the ambulance fee schedule is as follows:
(2) Air ambulance service levels. The base payment rate for the applicable type of air ambulance service is adjusted by the GAF and, when applicable, by the appropriate RAF to determine the amount of payment. Air ambulance services have no CF or RVUs. This amount is compared to the actual charge. The lesser of the charge or the adjusted GAF rate amount is added to the payment rate per mile, multiplied by the number of miles that the beneficiary was transported. When applicable, the appropriate RAF is also applied to the air mileage rate.
(3) Loaded mileage. Payment is based on loaded miles. Payment for air mileage is based on loaded miles flown as expressed in statute miles. There are three mileage payment rates: a rate for FW services, a rate for RW services, and a rate for all levels of ground transportation.
(4) Geographic adjustment factor (GAF). For ground ambulance services, the PE portion of the GPCI from the physician fee schedule is applied to 70 percent of the base rate for ground ambulance services. For air ambulance services, the PE portion of the physician fee schedule GPCI is applied to 50 percent of the base rate for air ambulance services.
(5) Rural adjustment factor (RAF).
(i) For ground ambulance services where the point of pickup is in a rural area, the mileage rate is increased by 50 percent for each of the first 17 miles and, for services furnished before January 1, 2004, by 25 percent for miles 18 through 50. The standard mileage rate applies to every mile over 50 miles and, for services furnished after December 31, 2003, to every mile over 17 miles. For air ambulance services where the point of pickup is in a rural area, the total payment is increased by 50 percent; that is, the rural adjustment factor applies to the sum of the base rate and the mileage rate.
(ii) For services furnished during the period July 1, 2004 through December 31, 2022, the payment amount for the ground ambulance base rate is increased by 22.6 percent where the point of pickup is in a rural area determined to be in the lowest 25 percent of rural population arrayed by population density. The amount of this increase is based on CMS's estimate of the ratio of the average cost per trip for the rural areas in the lowest quartile of population compared to the average cost per trip for the rural areas in the highest quartile of population. In making this estimate, CMS may use data provided by the GAO.
(6) Multiple patients. The allowable amount per beneficiary for a single ambulance transport when more than one patient is transported simultaneously is based on the total number of patients (both Medicare and non-Medicare) on board. If two patients are transported simultaneously, then the payment allowance for the beneficiary (or for each of them if both patients are beneficiaries) is equal to 75 percent of the service payment allowance applicable for the level of care furnished to the beneficiary, plus 50 percent of the applicable mileage payment allowance. If three or more patients are transported simultaneously, the payment allowance for the beneficiary (or each of them) is equal to 60 percent of the service payment allowance applicable for the level of care furnished to the beneficiary, plus the applicable mileage payment allowance divided by the number of patients on board.
(7) Payment rate for mileage greater than 50 miles. For services furnished during the period July 1, 2004 through December 31, 2008, each loaded ambulance mile greater than 50 (that is, miles 51 and greater) for ambulance transports originating in either urban areas or in rural areas are paid based on a rate that is 25 percent higher than otherwise is applicable under this section.
(8) Transport of an individual with end-stage renal disease for renal dialysis services. For ambulance services furnished during the period October 1, 2013 through September 30, 2018, consisting of non-emergency basic life support (BLS) services involving transport of an individual with end-stage renal disease for renal dialysis services (as described in section 1881(b)(14)(B) of the Act) furnished other than on an emergency basis by a provider of services or a renal dialysis facility, the fee schedule amount otherwise applicable (both base rate and mileage) is reduced by 10 percent. For such services furnished on or after October 1, 2018, the fee schedule amount otherwise applicable (both base rate and mileage) is reduced by 23 percent.
(9) Payment reduction for failure to report data. In the case of a ground ambulance organization (as defined at § 414.605) that is selected by CMS under § 414.626(c) for a year that does not sufficiently submit data under § 414.626(b) and is not granted a hardship exemption under § 414.626(d), the payments made under this section are reduced by 10 percent for the applicable period. For purposes of this paragraph, the applicable period is the calendar year that begins following the date that CMS provided written notification to the ground ambulance organization under § 414.626(e)(1) that the ground ambulance did not sufficiently submit the required data.
(d) Payment. Payment, in accordance with this subpart, represents payment in full (subject to applicable Medicare Part B deductible and coinsurance requirements as described in subpart G of part 409 of this chapter or in subpart I of part 410 of this chapter) for all services, supplies, and other costs for an ambulance service furnished to a Medicare beneficiary. No direct payment will be made under this subpart if billing for the ambulance service is required to be consolidated with billing for another benefit for which payment may be made under this chapter.
(f) Updates. The CF, the air ambulance base rates, and the mileage rates are updated annually by an inflation factor established by law. The inflation factor is based on the consumer price index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) (U.S. city average) for the 12-month period ending with June of the previous year and, for 2011 and each subsequent year, is reduced by the productivity adjustment described in section 1886(b)(3)(B)(xi)(II) of the Act.
(g) Adjustments. The Secretary monitors payment and billing data on an ongoing basis and adjusts the CF and air ambulance rates as appropriate to reflect actual practices under the fee schedule. These rates are not adjusted solely because of changes in the total number of ambulance transports.
(h) Treatment of certain areas for payment for air ambulance services. Any area that was designated as a rural area for purposes of making payments under the ambulance fee schedule for air ambulance services furnished on December 31, 2006, must be treated as a rural area for purposes of making payments under the ambulance fee schedule for air ambulance services furnished during the period July 1, 2008 through June 30, 2013.