42 CFR § 422.356 - Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest.
(a) Determining substantial financial risk. The PSO must demonstrate to CMS's satisfaction that it apportions a significant part of the financial risk of the PSO enterprise under the MA contract to each affiliated provider. The PSO must demonstrate that the financial arrangements among its affiliated providers constitute “substantial” risk in the PSO for each affiliated provider. The following mechanisms may constitute risk-sharing arrangements, and may have to be used in combination to demonstrate substantial financial risk in the PSO enterprise.
(3) The PSO's use of significant financial incentives for its affiliated providers, with the aim of achieving utilization management and cost containment goals. Permissible methods include the following:
(i) Affiliated providers agree to a withholding of a significant amount of the compensation due them, to be used for any of the following:
(A) To cover losses of the PSO.
(B) To cover losses of other affiliated providers.
(C) To be returned to the affiliated provider if the PSO meets its utilization management or cost containment goals for the specified time period.
(D) To be distributed among affiliated providers if the PSO meets its utilization management or cost-containment goals for the specified time period.
(ii) Affiliated providers agree to preestablished cost or utilization targets for the PSO and to subsequent significant financial rewards and penalties (which may include a reduction in payments to the provider) based on the PSO's performance in meeting the targets.
(4) Other mechanisms that demonstrate significant shared financial risk.
(b) Determining majority financial interest. Majority financial interest means maintaining effective control of the PSO.