42 CFR § 512.205 - Definitions.

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§ 512.205 Definitions.

For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions apply:

Aggregate quality score (AQS) means the numeric score calculated for each RO participant based on its performance on, and reporting of, quality measures and clinical data. The AQS is used to determine an RO participant's quality reconciliation payment amount.

APM means Alternative Payment Model.

ASC means Ambulatory Surgery Center.

Baseline period means the three calendar year period that begins on January 1 no fewer than five years but no more than six years prior to the start of the model performance period during which episodes must initiate in order to be used in the calculation of the national base rates, each RO participant's historical experience adjustment for the PC or TC or both for the model performance period, and the RO participant's case mix adjustment for the PC or TC or both for PY1. The baseline period is January 1, 2017 through December 31, 2019, unless the RO Model is prohibited by law from starting in calendar year (CY) 2022, in which case the baseline period will be delayed based on the new model performance period (for example, if the model performance period starts any time in CY 2023, then the baseline period would be CY 2018 through CY 2020).

Blend means the weight given to an RO participant's historical experience adjustment relative to the geographically-adjusted trended national base rate in the calculation of its participant-specific episode payment amounts.

CAH means Critical Access Hospital.

CEHRT means Certified Electronic Health Record Technology.

Clean period means the 28-day period after an RO episode has ended, during which time an RO participant must bill for medically necessary RT services furnished to the RO beneficiary in accordance with Medicare FFS billing rules.

Core-Based Statistical Area (CBSA) means a statistical geographic area, based on the definition as identified by the Office of Management and Budget, with a population of at least 10,000, which consists of a county or counties anchored by at least one core (urbanized area or urban cluster), plus adjacent counties having a high degree of social and economic integration with the core (as measured through commuting ties with the counties containing the core).

Discount factor means the percentage by which CMS reduces payment of the professional component and technical component.

(1) The reduction of payment occurs after the trend factor, the geographic adjustment, and the RO Model-specific adjustments have been applied, but before beneficiary cost-sharing and standard CMS adjustments, including sequestration, have been applied.

(2) The discount factor does not vary by cancer type.

(3) The discount factor for the professional component is 3.5 percent; the discount factor for the technical component is 4.5 percent.

Dual participant means an RO participant that furnishes both the professional component and technical component of RT services of an RO episode through a freestanding radiation therapy center, identified by a single TIN.

Duplicate RT service means any included RT service that is furnished to an RO beneficiary by an RT provider or RT supplier that is not excluded from participation in the RO Model at § 512.210(b), and that did not initiate the PC or TC of the RO beneficiary's RO episode. Such services are furnished in addition to the RT services furnished by the RO participant that initiated the PC or TC and continues to furnish care to the RO beneficiary during the RO episode.

Episode means the 90-day period of RT services that begins on the date of service that an RT provider or RT supplier that is not an RO participant furnishes an initial treatment planning service to a beneficiary, provided that an RT provider or RT supplier furnishes a technical component RT service to the beneficiary within 28 days of such initial treatment planning service. Additional criteria for constructing episodes to be included in determining the national base rates are set forth in § 512.250.

EOE stands for “end of episode” and means the end of an RO episode.

EUC stands for “extreme and uncontrollable circumstance” and means a circumstance that is beyond the control of one or more RO participants, adversely impacts such RO participants' ability to deliver care in accordance with the RO Model's requirements, and affects an entire region or locale.

HCPCS means Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System.

HOPD means hospital outpatient department.

Included cancer types means the cancer types determined by the criteria set forth in § 512.230, which are included in the RO Model test.

Included RT services means the RT services identified at § 512.235, which are included in the RO Model test.

Incomplete episode means an RO episode that is deemed not to have occurred because:

(1) A Technical participant or a Dual participant does not furnish a technical component to an RO beneficiary within 28 days following a Professional participant or the Dual participant furnishing an initial treatment planning service to that RO beneficiary;

(2) An RO beneficiary ceases to have traditional FFS Medicare as his or her primary payer at any time after the initial treatment planning service is furnished and before the date of service on a claim with an RO Model-specific HCPCS code and an EOE modifier; or

(3) An RO beneficiary switches RT provider or RT supplier before all included RT services in the RO episode have been furnished.

Individual practitioner means a Medicare-enrolled physician (identified by an NPI) who furnishes RT services to Medicare FFS beneficiaries, and has reassigned his or her billing rights to the TIN of an RO participant.

Individual practitioner list means a list of individual practitioners who furnish RT services under the TIN of a Dual participant or a Professional participant, which is annually compiled by CMS and which the RO participant must review, revise, and certify in accordance with § 512.217. The individual practitioner list is used for the RO Model as a Participation List as defined in § 414.1305 of this chapter.

Initial reconciliation means the first reconciliation of a PY that occurs as early as August following the applicable PY.

Legacy CCN means a CMS certification number (CCN) that an RO participant that is a hospital outpatient department (HOPD) or its predecessor(s) previously used to bill Medicare for included RT services but no longer uses to bill Medicare for included RT services.

Legacy TIN means a taxpayer identification number (TIN) that an RO participant that is a PGP, or a freestanding radiation therapy center, or its predecessor(s) previously used to bill Medicare for included RT services but no longer uses to bill Medicare for included RT services.

MIPS means Merit based Incentive Payment System.

Model performance period means the five performance years (PYs) during which RO episodes must initiate and terminate. The model performance period begins on January 1, 2022 and ends on December 31, 2026, unless the RO Model is prohibited by law from starting on January 1, 2022, in which case the model performance period begins on the earliest date permitted by law that is January 1, April 1, or July 1.

National base rate means the total payment amount for the relevant component of an RO episode, before application of the trend factor, discount factor, adjustments, and applicable withholds, for each of the included cancer types.

NPI means National Provider Identifier.

OPPS means outpatient prospective payment system.

Participant-specific professional episode payment means a payment which is calculated by CMS as set forth in § 512.255 and which is paid by CMS to a Professional participant or Dual participant as set forth in § 512.265, for the provision of the professional component to an RO beneficiary during an RO episode.

Participant-specific technical episode payment means a payment which is calculated by CMS as set forth in § 512.255 and which is paid by CMS to a Technical participant or Dual participant in accordance with § 512.265, for the provision of the technical component to an RO beneficiary during an RO episode.

PGP means physician group practice.

PPS means prospective payment system.

Professional component (PC) means the included RT services that may only be furnished by a physician.

Professional participant means an RO participant that is a Medicare-enrolled PGP identified by a single TIN that furnishes only the PC of an RO episode.

PSO means patient safety organization.

PY stands for performance year and means each 12-month period beginning on January 1 and ending on December 31 during the model performance period, unless the model performance period begins on a date other than January 1, in which case, the first performance year (PY1) begins on that date and ends on December 31 of the same year.

QP means Qualifying APM Participants.

Reconciliation payment means a payment made by CMS to an RO participant, as determined in accordance with § 512.285.

Repayment amount means the amount owed by an RO participant to CMS, as determined in accordance with § 512.285.

Reconciliation report means the annual report issued by CMS to an RO participant for each PY, which specifies the RO participant's reconciliation payment amount or repayment amount.

RO beneficiary means a Medicare beneficiary who meets all of the beneficiary inclusion criteria at § 512.215(a) and whose RO episode meets all the criteria defined at § 512.245.

RO episode means the 90-day period that, as set forth in § 512.245, begins on the date of service that a Professional participant or a Dual participant furnishes an initial treatment planning service to an RO beneficiary in a freestanding radiation therapy center or an HOPD, provided that a Technical participant or the same Dual participant furnishes a technical component RT service to the RO beneficiary within 28 days of such RT treatment planning service.

RO participant means a Medicare-enrolled PGP, freestanding radiation therapy center, or HOPD that participates in the RO Model in accordance with § 512.210. An RO participant may be a Dual participant, Professional participant, or Technical participant.

RT provider means a Medicare-enrolled HOPD that furnishes RT services.

RT services are the treatment planning, technical preparation, special services (such as simulation), treatment delivery, and treatment management services associated with cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.

RT supplier means a Medicare-enrolled PGP or freestanding radiation therapy center that furnishes RT services.

SOE stands for “start of episode” and means the start of an RO episode.

Stop-loss limit means the set percentage at which loss is limited under the Model used to calculate the stop-loss reconciliation amount.

Stop-loss reconciliation amount means the amount set forth in § 512.285(f) owed by CMS for the loss incurred under the Model to RO participants that have fewer than 60 episodes during the baseline period and were furnishing included RT services before the start of the model performance period in the CBSAs selected for participation.

Technical component (TC) means the included RT services that are not furnished by a physician, including the provision of equipment, supplies, personnel, and administrative costs related to RT services.

Technical participant means an RO participant that is a Medicare-enrolled HOPD or freestanding radiation therapy center, identified by a single CMS Certification Number (CCN) or TIN, which furnishes only the TC of an RO episode.

TIN means Taxpayer Identification Number.

Track One means a track for Professional participants and Dual participants that meet all RO Model requirements as specified in § 512.220, including use of CEHRT.

Track Two means a track for Professional participants and Dual participants that meet all RO Model requirements as specified in § 512.220, except for use of CEHRT.

Track Three means a track for Professional participants and Dual participants who do not meet one or more of the RO Model requirements set forth at § 512.220(a); and for all Technical participants.

Trend factor means an adjustment applied to the national base rates that updates those rates to reflect current trends in the OPPS and PFS rates for RT services.

True-up reconciliation means the process to calculate additional reconciliation payments or repayment amounts for incomplete episodes and duplicate RT services that are identified after the initial reconciliation and after a 12-month claims run-out for all RO episodes initiated in the applicable PY.

[85 FR 61362, Sept. 29, 2020, as amended at 85 FR 86304, Dec. 29, 2020; 86 FR 63994, Nov. 16, 2021]
Editorial Note:
At 85 FR 86304, Dec. 29, 2020, this section was amended, effective Dec. 4, 2020; however, due to a publication error, the amendments were codified at 86 FR 33902, June 28, 2021.

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