45 CFR § 87.1 - Definitions.
The following definitions apply for the purposes of this part.
(a) Direct Federal financial assistance, Federal financial assistance provided directly, or direct funding means financial assistance received by an entity selected by the Government or a pass-through entity (as defined in this part) to carry out a service (e.g., by contract, grant, or cooperative agreement). References to Federal financial assistance will be deemed to be references to direct Federal financial assistance, unless the referenced assistance meets the definition of indirect Federal financial assistance or Federal financial assistance provided indirectly.
(b) Directly funded means funded by means of direct Federal financial assistance.
(c) Indirect Federal financial assistance or Federal financial assistance provided indirectly means financial assistance received by a service provider when the service provider is paid for services rendered by means of a voucher, certificate, or other means of government-funded payment provided to a beneficiary who is able to make a choice of a service provider.
(d) Federal financial assistance does not include a tax credit, deduction, exemption, guaranty contract, or the use of any assistance by any individual who is the ultimate beneficiary under any such program.
(e) Pass-through entity means an entity, including a nonprofit or nongovernmental organization, acting under a contract, grant, or other agreement with the Federal Government or with a State or local government, such as a State administering agency, that accepts direct Federal financial assistance as a primary recipient or grantee and distributes that assistance to other organizations that, in turn, provide government funded social services.
(f) Recipient means a non-Federal entity that receives a Federal award directly from a Federal awarding agency to carry out an activity under a Federal program. The term recipient does not include subrecipients, but does include pass-through entities.
(g) Religious exercise has the meaning given to the term in 42 U.S.C. 2000cc-5(7)(A).