45 CFR Appendix B to Part 80, Guidelines for Eliminating Discrimination and Denial of Services on the Basis of Race, Color, National Origin, Sex, and Handicap in Vocational Education Programs
These Guidelines apply to recipients of any Federal financial assistance from the Department of Health and Human Services that offer or administer programs of vocational education or training. This includes State agency recipients.
For the purposes of title VI:
The term recipient means any State, political subdivision of any State, or instrumentality of any State or political subdivision, any public or private agency, institution, or organization, or other entity, or any individual, in any State, to whom Federal financial assistance is extended, directly or through another recipient, for any program, including any successor, assignee, or transferee thereof, but such term does not include any ultimate beneficiary [e.g., students] under any such program. ( 45 CFR 80.13(i)).
For the purpose of title IX:
Recipient means any State or political subdivision thereof, or any instrumentality of a State or political subdivision thereof, any public or private agency, institution, or organization, or other entity, or any person to whom Federal financial assistance is extended directly or through another recipient and which operates an education program or activity which receives or benefits from such assistance, including any subunit, successor, assignee, or transferee thereof. ( 45 CFR 86.2(h)).
For the purposes of section 504:
Recipient means any State or its political subdivision, any instrumentality of a State or its political subdivision, any public or private agency, institution, organization, or other entity, or any person to which Federal financial assistance is extended directly or through another recipient, including any successor, assignee, or transferee of a recipient, but excluding the ultimate beneficiary of the assistance. ( 45 CFR 84.3(f)).
The following education agencies, when they provide vocational education, are examples of recipients covered by these Guidelines:
1. The board of education of a public school district and its administrative agency.
2. The administrative board of a specialized vocational high school serving students from more than one school district.
3. The administrative board of a technical or vocation school that is used exclusively or principally for the provision of vocational education to persons who have completed or left high school (including persons seeking a certificate or an associate degree through a vocational program offered by the school) and who are available for study in preparation for entering the labor market.
4. The administrative board of a postsecondary institution, such as a technical institute, skill center, junior college, community college, or four year college that has a department or division that provides vocational education to students seeking immediate employment, a certificate or an associate degree.
5. The administrative board of a proprietary (private) vocational education school.
6. A State agency recipient itself operating a vocational education facility.
The following are examples of the types of schools to which these Guidelines apply.
1. A junior high school, middle school, or those grades of a comprehensive high school that offers instruction to inform, orient, or prepare students for vocational education at the secondary level.
2. A vocational education facility operated by a State agency.
3. A comprehensive high school that has a department exclusively or principally used for providing vocational education; or that offers at least one vocational program to secondary level students who are available for study in preparation for entering the labor market; or that offers adult vocational education to persons who have completed or left high school and who are available for study in preparation for entering the labor market.
4. A comprehensive high school, offering the activities described above, that receives students on a contract basis from other school districts for the purpose of providing vocational education.
5. A specialized high school used exclusively or principally for the provision of vocational education, that enrolls students from one or more school districts for the purpose of providing vocational education.
6. A technical or vocational school that primarily provides vocational education to persons who have completed or left high school and who are available for study in preparation for entering the labor market, including students seeking an associate degree or certificate through a course of vocational instruction offered by the school.
7. A junior college, a community college, or four-year college that has a department or division that provides vocational education to students seeking immediate employment, an associate degree or a certificate through a course of vocational instruction offered by the school.
8. A proprietary school, licensed by the State, that offers vocational education.
Subsequent sections of these Guidelines may use the term secondary vocational education center in referring to the institutions described in paragraphs 3, 4 and 5 above or the term postsecondary vocational education center in referring to institutions described in paragraphs 6 and 7 above or the term vocational education center in referring to any or all institutions described above.
State agency recipients, in addition to complying with all other provisions of the Guidelines relevant to them, may not require, approve of, or engage in any discrimination or denial of services on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap in performing any of the following activities:
1. Establishment of criteria or formulas for distribution of Federal or State funds to vocational education programs in the State;
2. Establishment of requirements for admission to or requirements for the administration of vocational education programs;
3. Approval of action by local entities providing vocational education. (For example, a State agency must ensure compliance with section IV of these Guidelines if and when it reviews a vocational education agency decision to create or change a geographic service area.);
4. Conducting its own programs. (For example, in employing its staff it may not discriminate on the basis of sex or handicap.)
The State agency responsible for the administration of vocational education programs must adopt a compliance program to prevent, identify and remedy discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex or handicap by its subrecipients. (A subrecipient, in this context, is a local agency or vocational education center that receives financial assistance through a State agency.) This compliance program must include:
1. Collecting and analyzing civil rights related data and information that subrecipients compile for their own purposes or that are submitted to State and Federal officials under existing authorities;
2. Conducting periodic compliance reviews of selected subrecipients (i.e., an investigation of a subrecipient to determine whether it engages in unlawful discrimination in any aspect of its program); upon finding unlawful discrimination, notifying the subrecipient of steps it must take to attain compliance and attempting to obtain voluntary compliance;
3. Providing technical assistance upon request to subrecipients. This will include assisting subrecipients identify unlawful discrimination and instructing them in remedies for and prevention of such discrimination;
4. Periodically reporting its activities and findings under the foregoing paragraphs, including findings of unlawful discrimination under paragraph 2, immediately above, to the Office for Civil Rights.
State agencies are not required to terminate or defer assistance to any subrecipient. Nor are they required to conduct hearings. The responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights to collect and analyze data, to conduct compliance reviews, to investigate complaints and to provide technical assistance are not diminished or attenuated by the requirements of Section II of the Guidelines.
Within one year from the publication of these Guidelines in final form, each State agency recipient performing oversight responsibilities must submit to the Office for Civil Rights the methods of administration and related procedures it will follow to comply with the requirements described in paragraphs A and B immediately above. The Department will review each submission and will promptly either approve it, or return it to State officials for revision.
Recipients that administer grants for vocational education must distribute Federal, State, or local vocational education funds so that no student or group of students is unlawfully denied an equal opportunity to benefit from vocational education on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap.
Recipients may not adopt a formula or other method for the allocation of Federal, State, or local vocational education funds that has the effect of discriminating on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap. However, a recipient may adopt a formula or other method of allocation that uses as a factor race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap [or an index or proxy for race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap e.g., number of persons receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children or with limited English speaking ability] if the factor is included to compensate for past discrimination or to comply with those provisions of the Vocational Education Amendments of 1976 designed to assist specified protected groups.
In each State it is likely that some local recipients will enroll greater proportions of minority students in vocational education than the State-wide proportion of minority students in vocational education. A funding formula or other method of allocation that results in such local recipients receiving per-pupil allocations of Federal or State vocational education funds lower than the State-wide average per-pupil allocation will be presumed unlawfully discriminatory.
Each State agency that establishes criteria for awarding competitive vocational education grants or contracts must establish and apply the criteria without regard to the race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap of any or all of a recipient's students, except to compensate for past discrimination.
State agencies must disseminate information needed to satisfy the requirements of any application process for competitive or discretionary grants so that all recipients, including those having a high percentage of minority or handicapped students, are informed of and able to seek funds. State agencies that provide technical assistance for the completion of the application process must provide such assistance without discrimination against any one recipient or class of recipients.
If the Office for Civil Rights finds that a recipient's system for distributing vocational education funds unlawfully discriminates on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap, it will require the recipient to adopt an alternative nondiscriminatory method of distribution. The Office for Civil Rights may also require the recipient to compensate for the effects of its past unlawful discrimination in the distribution of funds.
Criteria controlling student eligibility for admission to vocational education schools, facilities and programs may not unlawfully discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap. A recipient may not develop, impose, maintain, approve, or implement such discriminatory admissions criteria.
State and local recipients may not select or approve a site for a vocational education facility for the purpose or with the effect of excluding, segregating, or otherwise discriminating against students on the basis of race, color, or national origin. Recipients must locate vocational education facilities at sites that are readily accessible to both nonminority and minority communities, and that do not tend to identify the facility or program as intended for nonminority or minority students.
Recipients may not establish, approve or maintain geographic boundaries for a vocational education center service area or attendance zone, (hereinafter service area), that unlawfully exclude students on the basis of race, color, or national origin. The Office for Civil Rights will presume, subject to rebuttal, that any one or combination of the following circumstances indicates that the boundaries of a given service area are unlawfully constituted:
1. A school system or service area contiguous to the given service area, contains minority or nonminority students in substantially greater proportion than the given service area;
2. A substantial number of minority students who reside outside the given vocational education center service area, and who are not eligible for the center reside, nonetheless, as close to the center as a substantial number of non-minority students who are eligible for the center;
3. The over-all vocational education program of the given service area in comparison to the over-all vocational education program of a contiguous school system or service area enrolling a substantially greater proportion of minority students: (a) Provides its students with a broader range of curricular offerings, facilities and equipment; or (b) provides its graduates greater opportunity for employment in jobs: (i) For which there is a demonstrated need in the community or region; (ii) that pay higher entry level salaries or wages; or (iii) that are generally acknowledged to offer greater prestige or status.
A recipient may not add to, modify, or renovate the physical plant of a vocational education facility in a manner that creates, maintains, or increases student segregation on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap.
If the conditions specified in paragraphs IV, A, B, C, or D, immediately above, are found and not rebutted by proof of nondiscrimination, the Office for Civil rights will require the recipient(s) to submit a plan to remedy the discrimination. The following are examples of steps that may be included in the plan, where necessary to overcome the discrimination: (1) Redrawing of the boundaries of the vocational education center's service area to include areas unlawfully excluded and/or to exclude areas unlawfully included; (2) provision of transportation to students residing in areas unlawfully excluded; (3) provision of additional programs and services to students who would have been eligible for attendance at the vocational education center but for the discriminatory service area or site selection; (4) reassignment of students; and (5) construction of new facilities or expansion of existing facilities.
A recipient may not adopt or maintain a system for admission to a secondary vocational education center or program that limits admission to a fixed number of students from each sending school included in the center's service area if such a system disproportionately excludes students from the center on the basis of race, sex, national origin or handicap. (Example: Assume 25 percent of a school district's high school students are black and that most of those black students are enrolled in one high school; the white students, 75 percent of the district's total enrollment, are generally enrolled in the five remaining high schools. This paragraph prohibits a system of admission to the secondary vocational education center that limits eligibility to a fixed and equal number of students from each of the district's six high schools.)
If the Office for Civil Rights finds a violation of paragraph F, above, the recipient must implement an alternative system of admissions that does not disproportionately exclude students on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap.
A vocational education center, branch or annex, open to all students in a service area and predominantly enrolling minority students or students of one race, national origin or sex, will be presumed unlawfully segregated if: (1) It was established by a recipient for members of one race, national origin or sex; or (2) it has since its construction been attended primarily by members of one race, national origin or sex; or (3) most of its program offerings have traditionally been selected predominantely by members of one race, national origin or sex.
If the conditions specified in paragraph IV-H are found and not rebutted by proof of nondiscrimination, the Office for Civil Rights will require the recipient(s) to submit a plan to remedy the segregation. The following are examples of steps that may be included in the plan, where necessary to overcome the discrimination:
(1) elimination of program duplication in the segregated facility and other proximate vocational facilities; (2) relocation or “clustering” of programs or courses; (3) adding programs and courses that traditionally have been identified as intended for members of a particular race, national origin or sex to schools that have traditionally served members of the other sex or traditionally served persons of a different race or national origin; (4) merger of programs into one facility through school closings or new construction; (5) intensive outreach recruitment and counseling; (6) providing free transportation to students whose enrollment would promote desegregation.
[Paragraph J omitted]
Recipients may not judge candidates for admission to vocational education programs on the basis of criteria that have the effect of disproportionately excluding persons of a particular race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap. However, if a recipient can demonstrate that such criteria have been validated as essential to participation in a given program and that alternative equally valid criteria that do not have such a disproportionate adverse effect are unavailable, the criteria will be judged nondiscriminatory. Examples of admissions criteria that must meet this test are past academic performance, record of disciplinary infractions, counselors' approval, teachers' recommendations, interest inventories, high school diplomas and standardized tests, such as the Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE).
An introductory, preliminary, or exploratory course may not be established as a prerequisite for admission to a program unless the course has been and is available without regard to race, color, national origin, sex, and handicap. However, a course that was formerly only available on a discriminatory basis may be made a prerequisite for admission to a program if the recipient can demonstrate that: (a) the course is essential to participation in the program; and (b) the course is presently available to those seeking enrollment for the first time and to those formerly excluded.
Recipients may not restrict an applicant's admission to vocational education programs because the applicant, as a member of a national origin minority with limited English language skills, cannot participate in and benefit from vocational instruction to the same extent as a student whose primary language is English. It is the responsibility of the recipient to identify such applicants and assess their ability to participate in vocational instruction.
Acceptable methods of identification include: (1) Identification by administrative staff, teachers, or parents of secondary level students; (2) identification by the student in postsecondary or adult programs; and (3) appropriate diagnostic procedures, if necessary.
Recipients must take steps to open all vocational programs to these national origin minority students. A recipient must demonstrate that a concentration of students with limited English language skills in one or a few programs is not the result of discriminatory limitations upon the opportunities available to such students.
If the Office for Civil Rights finds that a recipient has denied national origin minority persons admission to a vocational school or program because of their limited English language skills or has assigned students to vocational programs solely on the basis of their limited English language skills, the recipient will be required to submit a remedial plan that insures national origin minority students equal access to vocational education programs.
Recipients may not deny handicapped students access to vocational education programs or courses because of architectural or equipment barriers, or because of the need for related aids and services or auxiliary aids. If necessary, recipients must: (1) Modify instructional equipment; (2) modify or adapt the manner in which the courses are offered; (3) house the program in facilities that are readily accessible to mobility impaired students or alter facilities to make them readily accessible to mobility impaired students; and (4) provide auxiliary aids that effectively make lectures and necessary materials available to postsecondary handicapped students; (5) provide related aids or services that assure secondary students an appropriate education.
Academic requirements that the recipient can demonstrate are essential to a program of instruction or to any directly related licensing requirement will not be regarded as discriminatory. However, where possible, a recipient must adjust those requirements to the needs of individual handicapped students.
Access to vocational programs or courses may not be denied handicapped students on the ground that employment opportunities in any occupation or profession may be more limited for handicapped persons than for non-handicapped persons.
Prior to the beginning of each school year, recipients must advise students, parents, employees and the general public that all vocational opportunities will be offered without regard to race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap. Announcement of this policy of non-discrimination may be made, for example, in local newspapers, recipient publications and/or other media that reach the general public, program beneficiaries, minorities (including national origin minorities with limited English language skills), women, and handicapped persons. A brief summary of program offerings and admission criteria should be included in the announcement; also the name, address and telephone number of the person designated to coordinate Title IX and Section 504 compliance activity.
If a recipient's service area contains a community of national origin minority persons with limited English language skills, public notification materials must be disseminated to that community in its language and must state that recipients will take steps to assure that the lack of English language skills will not be a barrier to admission and participation in vocational education programs.
Recipients must insure that their counseling materials and activities (including student program selection and career/employment selection), promotional, and recruitment efforts do not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap.
Recipients that operate vocational education programs must insure that counselors do not direct or urge any student to enroll in a particular career or program, or measure or predict a student's prospects for success in any career or program based upon the student's race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap. Recipients may not counsel handicapped students toward more restrictive career objectives than nonhandicapped students with similar abilities and interests. If a vocational program disproportionately enrolls male or female students, minority or nonminority students, or handicapped students, recipients must take steps to insure that the disproportion does not result from unlawful discrimination in counseling activities.
Recipients must conduct their student recruitment activities so as not to exclude or limit opportunities on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap. Where recruitment activities involve the presentation or portrayal of vocational and career opportunities, the curricula and programs described should cover a broad range of occupational opportunities and not be limited on the basis of the race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap of the students or potential students to whom the presentation is made. Also, to the extent possible, recruiting teams should include persons of different races, national origins, sexes, and handicaps.
Recipients must insure that counselors can effectively communicate with national origin minority students with limited English language skills and with students who have hearing impairments. This requirement may be satisfied by having interpreters available.
Recipients may not undertake promotional efforts (including activities of school officials, counselors, and vocational staff) in a manner that creates or perpetuates stereotypes or limitations based on race, color, national origin, sex or handicap. Examples of promotional efforts are career days, parents' night, shop demonstrations, visitations by groups of prospective students and by representatives from business and industry. Materials that are part of promotional efforts may not create or perpetuate stereotypes through text or illustration. To the extent possible they should portray males or females, minorities or handicapped persons in programs and occupations in which these groups traditionally have not been represented. If a recipient's service area contains a community of national origin minority persons with limited English language skills, promotional literature must be distributed to that community in its language.
Recipients must place secondary level handicapped students in the regular educational environment of any vocational education program to the maximum extent appropriate to the needs of the student unless it can be demonstrated that the education of the handicapped person in the regular environment with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily. Handicapped students may be placed in a program only after the recipient satisfies the provisions of the Department's Regulation, 45 CFR part 84, relating to evaluation, placement, and procedural safeguards. If a separate class or facility is identifiable as being for handicapped persons, the facility, the programs, and the services must be comparable to the facilities, programs, and services offered to nonhandicapped students.
Recipients may not award financial assistance in the form of loans, grants, scholarships, special funds, subsidies, compensation for work, or prizes to vocational education students on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap, except to overcome the effects of past discrimination. Recipients may administer sex restricted financial assistance where the assistance and restriction are established by will, trust, bequest, or any similar legal instrument, if the overall effect of all financial assistance awarded does not discriminate on the basis of sex. Materials and information used to notify students of opportunities for financial assistance may not contain language or examples that would lead applicants to believe the assistance is provided on a discriminatory basis. If a recipient's service area contains a community of national origin minority persons with limited English language skills, such information must be disseminated to that community in its language.
Recipients must extend housing opportunities without discrimination based on race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap. This obligation extends to recipients that provide on-campus housing and/or that have agreements with providers of off-campus housing. In particular, a recipient postsecondary vocational education program that provides on-campus or off-campus housing to its nonhandicapped students must provide, at the same cost and under the same conditions, comparable convenient and accessible housing to handicapped students.
Recipients must provide changing rooms, showers, and other facilities for students of one sex that are comparable to those provided to students of the other sex. This may be accomplished by alternating use of the same facilities or by providing separate, comparable facilities.
Such facilities must be adapted or modified to the extent necessary to make the vocational education program readily accessible to handicapped persons.
A recipient must insure that: (a) It does not discriminate against its students on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap in making available opportunities in cooperative education, work study and job placement programs; and (b) students participating in cooperative education, work study and job placement programs are not discriminated against by employers or prospective employers on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap in recruitment, hiring, placement, assignment to work tasks, hours of employment, levels of responsibility, and in pay.
If a recipient enters into a written agreement for the referral or assignment of students to an employer, the agreement must contain an assurance from the employer that students will be accepted and assigned to jobs and otherwise treated without regard to race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap.
Recipients may not honor any employer's request for students who are free of handicaps or for students of a particular race, color, national origin, or sex. In the event an employer or prospective employer is or has been subject to court action involving discrimination in employment, school officials should rely on the court's findings if the decision resolves the issue of whether the employer has engaged in unlawful discrimination.
A recipient may not enter into any agreement for the provision or support of apprentice training for students or union members with any labor union or other sponsor that discriminates against its members or applicants for membership on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap. If a recipient enters into a written agreement with a labor union or other sponsor providing for apprentice training, the agreement must contain an assurance from the union or other sponsor: (1) That it does not engage in such discrimination against its membership or applicants for membership; and (2) that apprentice training will be offered and conducted for its membership free of such discrimination.
Recipients may not engage in any employment practice that discriminates against any employee or applicant for employment on the basis of sex or handicap. Recipients may not engage in any employment practice that discriminates on the basis of race, color, or national origin if such discrimination tends to result in segregation, exclusion or other discrimination against students.
Recipients may not limit their recruitment for employees to schools, communities, or companies disproportionately composed of persons of a particular race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap except for the purpose of overcoming the effects of past discrimination. Every source of faculty must be notified that the recipient does not discriminate in employment on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, or handicap.
Whenever the Office for Civil Rights finds that in light of the representation of protected groups in the relevant labor market there is a significant underrepresentation or overrepresentation of protected group persons on the staff of a vocational education school or program, it will presume that the disproportion results from unlawful discrimination. This presumption can be overcome by proof that qualified persons of the particular race, color, national origin, or sex, or that qualified handicapped persons are not in fact available in the relevant labor market.
Recipients must establish and maintain faculty salary scales and policy based upon the conditions and responsibilities of employment, without regard to race, color, national origin, sex or handicap.
Recipients must provide equal employment opportunities for teaching and administrative positions to handicapped applicants who can perform the essential functions of the position in question. Recipients must make reasonable accommodation for the physical or mental limitations of handicapped applicants who are otherwise qualified unless recipients can demonstrate that the accommodation would impose an undue hardship.
Recipients must take steps to overcome the effects of past discrimination in the recruitment, hiring, and assignment of faculty. Such steps may include the recruitment or reassignment of qualified persons of a particular race, national origin, or sex, or who are handicapped.
State Advisory Councils of Vocational Education are recipients of Federal financial assistance and therefore must comply with Section VIII of the Guidelines.
Where recruitment and hiring of staff for State operated vocational education centers is conducted by a State civil service employment authority, the State education agency operating the program must insure that recruitment and hiring of staff for the vocational education center is conducted in accordance with the requirements of these Guidelines.
Proprietary vocational education schools that are recipients of Federal financial assistance through Federal student assistance programs or otherwise are subject to all of the requirements of the Department's regulations and these Guidelines.
Enforcement of the provisions of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is the responsibility of the Department of Health and Human Services. However, authority to enforce Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 for proprietary vocational education schools has been delegated to the Veterans Administration.
When the Office for Civil Rights receives a Title VI complaint alleging discrimination by a proprietary vocational education school it will forward the complaint to the Veterans Administration and cite the applicable requirements of the Department's regulations and these Guidelines. The complainant will be notified of such action.