47 CFR 2.1093 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: portable devices.
(a) Requirements of this section are a consequence of Commission responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act to evaluate the environmental significance of its actions. See subpart I of part 1 of this chapter, in particular § 1.1307(b).
(b) For purposes of this section, a portable device is defined as a transmitting device designed to be used so that the radiating structure(s) of the device is/are within 20 centimeters of the body of the user.
(1) Portable devices that operate in the Cellular Radiotelephone Service pursuant to part 22 of this chapter; the Personal Communications Service (PCS) pursuant to part 24 of this chapter; the Satellite Communications Services pursuant to part 25 of this chapter; the Miscellaneous Wireless Communications Services pursuant to part 27 of this chapter; the Upper Microwave Flexible Use Service pursuant to part 30 of this chapter; the Maritime Services (ship earth station devices only) pursuant to part 80 of this chapter; the Specialized Mobile Radio Service, the 4.9 GHz Band Service, and the 3650 MHz Wireless Broadband Service pursuant to part 90 of this chapter; the Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS), the Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio), and the 76-81 GHz Band Radar Service pursuant to subparts H, I, and M of part 95 of this chapter, respectively; unlicensed personal communication service, unlicensed NII devices and millimeter-wave devices authorized under §§ 15.255(g), 15.257(g), 15.319(i), and 15.407(f) of this chapter; and the Citizens Broadband Radio Service pursuant to part 96 of this chapter are subject to routine environmental evaluation for RF exposure prior to equipment authorization or use.
(2) All other portable transmitting devices are categorically excluded from routine environmental evaluation for RF exposure prior to equipment authorization or use, except as specified in §§ 1.1307(c) and 1.1307(d) of this chapter.
(3) Applications for equipment authorization of portable transmitting devices subject to routine environmental evaluation must contain a statement confirming compliance with the limits specified in paragraph (d) of this section. Technical information showing the basis for this statement must be submitted to the Commission upon request.
(d) The limits to be used for evaluation are based generally on criteria published by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for localized specific absorption rate (“SAR”) in Section 4.2 of “IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,” ANSI/IEEE C95.1-1992, Copyright 1992 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, New York 10017. These criteria for SAR evaluation are similar to those recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in “Biological Effects and Exposure Criteria for Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields,” NCRP Report No. 86, Section 17.4.5. Copyright NCRP, 1986, Bethesda, Maryland 20814. SAR is a measure of the rate of energy absorption due to exposure to an RF transmitting source. SAR values have been related to threshold levels for potential biological hazards. The criteria to be used are specified in paragraphs (d)(1) and (d)(2) of this section and shall apply for portable devices transmitting in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 6 GHz. Portable devices that transmit at frequencies above 6 GHz are to be evaluated in terms of the MPE limits specified in § 1.1310 of this chapter. Measurements and calculations to demonstrate compliance with MPE field strength or power density limits for devices operating above 6 GHz should be made at a minimum distance of 5 cm from the radiating source.
(1) The SAR limits for occupational/controlled exposure are 0.4 W/kg, as averaged over the whole body, and a peak spatial-average SAR of 8 W/kg, averaged over any 1 gram of tissue (defined as a tissue volume in the shape of a cube). Exceptions are the parts of the human body treated as extremities, such as hands, wrists, feet, ankles, and pinnae, where the peak spatial-average SAR limit for occupational/controlled exposure is 20 W/kg, averaged over any 10 grams of tissue (defined as a tissue volume in the shape of a cube). Exposure may be averaged over a time period not to exceed 6 minutes to determine compliance with occupational/controlled SAR limits.
(i) Occupational/Controlled limits apply when persons are exposed as a consequence of their employment provided these persons are fully aware of and exercise control over their exposure. Awareness of exposure can be accomplished by use of visual advisories (such as labeling, embossing, or on an equivalent electronic display) or by specific training or education through appropriate means, such as an RF safety program in a work environment.
(ii) Visual advisories on portable devices designed only for occupational use can be used as part of an applicant's evidence of the device user's awareness of occupational/controlled exposure limits.
(A) Such visual advisories shall be legible and clearly visible to the user from the exterior of the device.
(B) Visual advisories must indicate that the device is for occupational use only, refer the user to specific information on RF exposure, such as that provided in a user manual and note that the advisory and its information is required for FCC RF exposure compliance.
(C) Such instructional material must provide the user with information on how to use the device in order to ensure compliance with the occupational/controlled exposure limits.
(D) A sample of the visual advisory, illustrating its location on the device, and any instructional material intended to accompany the device when marketed, shall be filed with the Commission along with the application for equipment authorization. Details of any special training requirements pertinent to limiting RF exposure should also be submitted.
(E) Holders of grants for portable devices to be used in occupational settings are encouraged, but not required, to coordinate with end-user organizations to ensure appropriate RF safety training.
(2) The SAR limits for general population/uncontrolled exposure are 0.08 W/kg, as averaged over the whole body, and a peak spatial-average SAR of 1.6 W/kg, averaged over any 1 gram of tissue (defined as a tissue volume in the shape of a cube). Exceptions are the parts of the human body treated as extremities, such as hands, wrists, feet, ankles, and pinnae, where the peak spatial-average SAR limit is 4 W/kg, averaged over any 10 grams of tissue (defined as a tissue volume in the shape of a cube). Exposure may be averaged over a time period not to exceed 30 minutes to determine compliance with general population/uncontrolled SAR limits.
(i) General Population/Uncontrolled limits apply when the general public may be exposed, or when persons that are exposed as a consequence of their employment may not be fully aware of the potential for exposure or do not exercise control over their exposure.
(ii) Visual advisories (such as labeling, embossing, or on an equivalent electronic display) on consumer devices such as cellular telephones will not be sufficient reason to allow these devices to be evaluated subject to limits for occupational/controlled exposure in paragraph (d)(1) of this section.
(3) Compliance with SAR limits can be demonstrated by either laboratory measurement techniques or by computational modeling. The latter must be supported by adequate documentation showing that the test device and exposure conditions have been correctly modeled in accordance with the operating configurations for normal use. Guidance regarding SAR measurement techniques can be found in the Office of Engineering and Technology (OET) Laboratory Division Knowledge Database (KDB). The staff guidance provided in the KDB does not necessarily represent the only acceptable methods for measuring RF exposure or emissions, and is not binding on the Commission or any interested party.
(4) For purposes of analyzing portable transmitting devices under the occupational/controlled criteria, the time-averaging provisions of the MPE guidelines identified in § 1.1310 of this chapter can be used in conjunction with typical maximum duty factors to determine maximum likely exposure levels.
(5) Time-averaging provisions of the MPE guidelines identified in § 1.1310 of this chapter may not be used in determining typical exposure levels for portable devices intended for use by consumers, such as hand-held cellular telephones, that are considered to operate in general population/uncontrolled environments as defined above. However, “source-based” time-averaging based on an inherent property or duty-cycle of a device is allowed. An example of this would be the determination of exposure from a device that uses digital technology such as a time-division multiple-access (TDMA) scheme for transmission of a signal. In general, maximum average power levels must be used to determine compliance.
- 47 CFR 25.285 — Operation of MSS and ATC Transmitters or Transceivers on Board Civil Aircraft.
- 47 CFR 1.1310 — Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure Limits.
- 47 CFR 15.709 — General Technical Requirements.
- 47 CFR 15.319 — General Technical Requirements.
- 47 CFR 24.52 — RF Hazards.
- 47 CFR 27.52 — RF Safety.
- 47 CFR 90.1217 — RF Hazards.
- 47 CFR 1.1307 — Actions That May Have a Significant Environmental Effect, for Which Environmental Assessments (EAs) Must Be Prepared.
- 47 CFR 96.51 — RF Safety.
- 47 CFR 15.407 — General Technical Requirements.
- 47 CFR 101.1525 — RF Safety.
- 47 CFR 2.1091 — Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure Evaluation: Mobile Devices.
- 47 CFR 15.255 — Operation Within the Band 57-71 GHz.
- 47 CFR 25.129 — Equipment Authorization for Portable Earth-Station Transceivers.
- 47 CFR 25.149 — Application Requirements for Ancillary Terrestrial Components in Mobile-Satellite Service Networks Operating in the 1.5./1.6 GHz and 1.6/2.4 GHz Mobile-Satellite Service.
- 47 CFR 30.207 — Radio Frequency (RF) Safety.
- 47 CFR 95.2585 — MedRadio RF Exposure Evaluation.
- 47 CFR 95.385 — RF Exposure Evaluation.
- 47 CFR 95.2385 — WMTS RF Exposure Evaluation.
- 47 CFR 95.3385 — 76-81 GHz Band Radar Service RF Exposure Evaluation.