49 CFR 173.59 - Description of terms for explosives.
For the purpose of this subchapter, a description of the following terms is provided for information only. They must not be used for purposes of classification or to replace proper shipping names prescribed in § 172.101 of this subchapter.
Ammonium-nitrate - fuel oil mixture (ANFO). A blasting explosive containing no essential ingredients other than prilled ammonium nitrate and fuel oil.
Ammunition, illuminating, with or without burster, expelling charge or propelling charge. Ammunition designed to produce a single source of intense light for lighting up an area. The term includes illuminating cartridges, grenades and projectiles, and illuminating and target identification bombs. The term excludes the following articles which are listed separately: cartridges, signal; signal devices; hand signals; distress flares, aerial and flares, surface.
Ammunition, incendiary. Ammunition containing an incendiary substance which may be a solid, liquid or gel including white phosphorus. Except when the composition is an explosiveper se, it also contains one or more of the following: a propelling charge with primer and igniter charge, or a fuze with burster or expelling charge. The term includes: Ammunition, incendiary, liquid or gel, with burster, expelling charge or propelling charge; Ammunition, incendiary with or without burster, expelling charge or propelling charge; and Ammunition, incendiary, white phosphorus, with burster, expelling charge or propelling charge.
Ammunition, practice. Ammunition without a main bursting charge, containing a burster or expelling charge. Normally it also contains a fuze and propelling charge. The term excludes the following article which is listed separately: Grenades, practice.
Ammunition, smoke. Ammunition containing a smoke-producing substance such as chlorosulphonic acid mixture (CSAM), titanium tetrachloride (FM), white phosphorus, or smoke-producing substance whose composition is based on hexachlorothannol (HC) or red phosphorus. Except when the substance is an explosiveper se, the ammunition also contains one or more of the following: a propelling charge with primer and igniter charge, or a fuze with burster or expelling charge. The term includes: Ammunition, smoke, with or without burster, expelling charge or propelling charge; Ammunition, smoke, white phosphorus with burster, expelling charge or propelling charge.
Ammunition, tear-producing with burster, expelling charge or propelling charge. Ammunition containing tear-producing substance. It may also contain one or more of the following: a pyrotechnic substance, a propelling charge with primer and igniter charge, or a fuze with burster or expelling charge.
Ammunition, toxic. Ammunition containing toxic agent. It may also contain one or more of the following: a pyrotechnic substance, a propelling charge with primer and igniter charge, or a fuze with burster or expelling charge.
Articles, explosive, extremely insensitive (Articles, EEI). Articles that contain only extremely insensitive substances and which demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation under normal conditions of transport and which have passed Test Series 7.
Articles, pyrophoric. Articles which contain a pyrophoric substance (capable of spontaneous ignition when exposed to air) and an explosive substance or component. The term excludes articles containing white phosphorus.
Articles, pyrotechnic for technical purposes. Articles which contain pyrotechnic substances and are used for technical purposes, such as heat generation, gas generation, theatrical effects, etc. The term excludes the following articles which are listed separately: all ammunition; cartridges, signal; cutters, cable, explosive; fireworks; flares, aerial; flares, surface; release devices, explosives; rivets, explosive; signal devices, hand; signals, distress; signals, railway track, explosive; and signals, smoke.
Auxiliary explosive component, isolated. A small device that explosively performs an operation related to the article's functioning, other than its main explosive loads' performance. Functioning of the component does not cause any reaction of the main explosive loads contained within the article.
Black powder (gunpowder). Substance consisting of an intimate mixture of charcoal or other carbon and either potassium or sodium nitrate, and sulphur. It may be meal, granular, compressed, or pelletized.
Bombs. Explosive articles which are dropped from aircraft. They may contain a flammable liquid with bursting charge, a photo-flash composition or bursting charge. The term excludes torpedoes (aerial) and includes bombs, photo-flash; bombs with bursting charge; bombs with flammable liquids, with bursting charge.
Cartridges, blank. Articles that consist of a cartridge case with a center or rim fire primer and a confined charge of smokeless or black powder, but no projectile. Used in training, saluting, or in starter pistols, tools, etc.
Cartridges, flash. Articles consisting of a casing, a primer and flash powder, all assembled in one piece for firing.
Cartridges for weapons.
(1) Fixed (assembled) or semi-fixed (partially assembled) ammunition designed to be fired from weapons. Each cartridge includes all the components necessary to function the weapon once. The name and description should be used for military small arms cartridges that cannot be described as cartridges, small arms. Separate loading ammunition is included under this name and description when the propelling charge and projectile are packed together (see also Cartridges, blank).
(2) Incendiary, smoke, toxic, and tear-producing cartridges are described under ammunition, incendiary, etc.
Cartridges, oil well. Articles consisting of a casing of thin fiber, metal or other material containing only propellant explosive. The term excludes charges, shaped, commercial.
Cartridges, power device. Articles designed to accomplish mechanical actions. They consist of a casing with a charge of deflagrating explosive and a means of ignition. The gaseous products of the deflagration produce inflation, linear or rotary motion; activate diaphragms, valves or switches, or project fastening devices or extinguishing agents.
Cartridges, small arms. Ammunition consisting of a cartridge case fitted with a center or rim fire primer and containing both a propelling charge and solid projectile(s). They are designed to be fired in weapons of caliber not larger than 19.1 mm. Shotgun cartridges of any caliber are included in this description. The term excludes: Cartridges, small arms, blank, and some military small arms cartridges listed under Cartridges for weapons, inert projectile.
Cases, cartridge, empty with primer. Articles consisting of a cartridge case made from metal, plastics or other non-flammable materials, in which only the explosive component is the primer.
Cases, combustible, empty, without primer. Articles consisting of cartridge cases made partly or entirely from nitrocellulose.
Charges, expelling. A charge of deflagrating explosive designed to eject the payload from the parent article without damage.
Charges, propelling. Articles consisting of propellant charge in any physical form, with or without a casing, for use in cannon or for reducing drag for projectiles or as a component of rocket motors.
Charges, propelling for cannon. Articles consisting of a propellant charge in any physical form, with or without a casing, for use in a cannon.
Charges, shaped, without detonator. Articles consisting of a casing containing a charge of detonating explosive with a cavity lined with rigid material, without means of initiation. They are designed to produce a powerful, penetrating jet effect.
Charges, shaped, flexible, linear. Articles consisting of a V-shaped core of a detonating explosive clad by a flexible metal sheath.
Charges, supplementary, explosive. Articles consisting of a small removable booster used in the cavity of a projectile between the fuze and the bursting charge.
Consumer firework. Any finished firework device that is in a form intended for use by the public that complies with any limits and requirements of the APA Standard 87-1 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) and the construction, performance, chemical composition, and labeling requirements codified by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission in 16 CFR parts 1500 and 1507. A consumer firework does not include firework devices, kits or components banned by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission in 16 CFR 1500.17 (a)(8).
Contrivance, water-activated with burster, expelling charge or propelling charge. Articles whose functioning depends of physico-chemical reaction of their contents with water.
Cord, detonating, flexible. Articles consisting of a core of detonating explosive enclosed in spun fabric with plastics or other covering.
Cord (fuse) detonating, metal clad. Articles consisting of a core of detonating explosive clad by a soft metal tube with or without protective covering. When the core contains a sufficiently small quantity of explosive, the words “mild effect” are added.
Cord igniter. Articles consisting of textile yarns covered with black powder or another fast-burning pyrotechnic composition and a flexible protective covering, or consisting of a core of black powder surrounded by a flexible woven fabric. It burns progressively along its length with an external flame and is used to transmit ignition from a device to a charge or primer.
Cutters, cable, explosive. Articles consisting of a knife-edged device which is driven by a small charge of deflagrating explosive into an anvil.
Detonator assemblies, non-electric, for blasting. Non-electric detonators assembled with and activated by such means as safety fuse, shock tube, flash tube, or detonating cord. They may be of instantaneous design or incorporate delay elements. Detonating relays incorporating detonating cord are included. Other detonating relays are included in Detonators, nonelectric.
Detonators. Articles consisting of a small metal or plastic tube containing explosives such as lead azide, PETN, or combinations of explosives. They are designed to start a detonation train. They may be constructed to detonate instantaneously, or may contain a delay element. They may contain no more than 10 g of total explosives weight, excluding ignition and delay charges, per unit. The term includes: detonators for ammunition; detonators for blasting, both electric and non-electric; and detonating relays without flexible detonating cord.
Dynamite. A detonating explosive containing a liquid explosive ingredient (generally nitroglycerin, similar organic nitrate esters, or both) that is uniformly mixed with an absorbent material, such as wood pulp, and usually contains materials such as nitrocellulose, sodium and ammonium nitrate.
Entire load and total contents. The phrase means such a substantial portion of the material explodes that the practical hazard should be assessed by assuming simultaneous explosion of the whole of the explosive content of the load or package.
Explode. The term indicates those explosive effects capable of endangering life and property through blast, heat, and projection of missiles. It encompasses both deflagration and detonation.
Explosion of the total contents. The phrase is used in testing a single article or package or a small stack of articles or packages.
Explosive, blasting. Detonating explosive substances used in mining, construction, and similar tasks. Blasting explosives are assigned to one of five types. In addition to the ingredients listed below for each type, blasting explosives may also contain inert components, such as kieselguhr, and other minor ingredients, such as coloring agents and stabilizers.
Explosive, blasting, type A. Substances consisting of liquid organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin, or a mixture of such ingredients with one or more of the following: nitrocellulose, ammonium nitrate or other inorganic nitrates, aromatic nitro-derivatives, or combustible materials, such as wood-meal and aluminum powder. Such explosives must be in powdery, gelatinous, plastic or elastic form. The term includes dynamite, blasting gelatine and gelatine dynamites.
Explosive, blasting, type B. Substances consisting of a mixture of ammonium nitrate or other inorganic nitrates with an explosive, such as trinitrotoluene, with or without other substances, such as wood-meal or aluminum powder, or a mixture of ammonium nitrate or other inorganic nitrates with other combustible substances which are not explosive ingredients. Such explosives may not contain nitroglycerin, similar liquid organic nitrates, or chlorates.
Explosive, blasting, type C. Substances consisting of a mixture of either potassium or sodium chlorate or potassium, sodium or ammonium perchlorate with organic nitro-derivatives or combustible materials, such as wood-meal or aluminum powder, or a hydrocarbon. Such explosives must not contain nitroglycerin or any similar liquid organic nitrate.
Explosive, blasting, type D. Substances consisting of a mixture of organic nitrate compounds and combustible materials, such as hydrocarbons and aluminum powder. Such explosives must not contain nitroglycerin, any similar liquid organic nitrate, chlorate or ammonium-nitrate. The term generally includes plastic explosives.
Explosive, blasting, type E. Substances consisting of water as an essential ingredient and high proportions of ammonium nitrate or other oxidizer, some or all of which are in solution. The other constituents may include nitro-derivatives, such as trinitrotoluene, hydrocarbons or aluminum powder. The term includes: explosives, emulsion; explosives, slurry; and explosives, watergel.
Explosive, deflagrating. A substance, e.g., propellant, which reacts by deflagration rather than detonation when ignited and used in its normal manner.
Explosive, detonating. A substance which reacts by detonation rather than deflagration when initiated and used in its normal manner.
Explosive, extremely insensitive substance (EIS). A substance that has demonstrated through tests that it is so insensitive that there is very little probability of accidental initiation.
Explosive, primary. Explosive substance which is manufactured with a view to producing a practical effect by explosion, is very sensitive to heat, impact, or friction, and even in very small quantities, detonates. The major primary explosives are mercury fulminate, lead azide, and lead styphnate.
Explosive, secondary. An explosive substance which is relatively insensitive (when compared to primary explosives) and is usually initiated by primary explosives with or without the aid of boosters or supplementary charges. Such an explosive may react as a deflagrating or as a detonating explosive.
Fireworks. Pyrotechnic articles designed for entertainment.
Flash powder. Pyrotechnic substance which, when ignited, produces an intense light.
Fracturing devices, explosive, for oil wells, without detonators. Articles consisting of a charge of detonating explosive contained in a casing without the means of initiation. They are used to fracture the rock around a drill shaft to assist the flow of crude oil from the rock.
Fuse/Fuze. Although these two words have a common origin (French fusee, fusil) and are sometimes considered to be different spellings, it is useful to maintain the convention that fuse refers to a cord-like igniting device, whereas fuze refers to a device used in ammunition which incorporates mechanical, electrical, chemical, or hydrostatic components to initiate a train by deflagration or detonation.
Fuse, igniter. Articles consisting of a metal tube with a core of deflagrating explosives.
Fuse, instantaneous, non-detonating (Quickmatch). Article consisting of cotton yarns impregnated with fine black powder. It burns with an external flame and is used in ignition trains for fireworks, etc.
Fuse, safety. Article consisting of a core of fine-grained black powder surrounded by a flexible woven fabric with one or more protective outer coverings. When ignited, it burns at a predetermined rate without any explosive effect.
Fuzes. Articles designed to start a detonation or deflagration in ammunition. They incorporate mechanical, electrical, chemical, or hydrostatic components and generally protective features. The term includes: Fuzes, detonating; fuzes detonating with protective features; and fuzes igniting.
Grenades, hand or rifle. Articles which are designed to be thrown by hand or to be projected by rifle. The term includes: grenades, hand or rifle, with bursting charge; and grenades, practice, hand or rifle. The term excludes: grenades, smoke.
Igniters. Articles containing one or more explosive substance used to start deflagration of an explosive train. They may be actuated chemically, electrically, or mechanically. The term excludes: cord, igniter; fuse, igniter; fuse, instantaneous, non-detonating; fuze, igniting; lighters, fuse, instantaneous, non-detonating; fuzes, igniting; lighters, fuse; primers, cap type; and primers, tubular.
Ignition, means of. A general term used in connection with the method employed to ignite a deflagrating train of explosive or pyrotechnic substances (for example: a primer for propelling charge, an igniter for a rocket motor or an igniting fuze).
Initiation, means of.
(2) The term with its own means of initiation means that the contrivance has its normal initiating device assembled to it and this device is considered to present a significant risk during transport but not one great enough to be unacceptable. The term does not apply, however, to a contrivance packed together with its means of initiation, provided the device is packaged so as to eliminate the risk of causing detonation of the contrivance in the event of functioning of the initiating device. The initiating device can even be assembled in the contrivance provided there are protective features ensuring that the device is very unlikely to cause detonation of the contrivance under conditions which are associated with transport.
(3) For the purposes of classification, any means of initiation without two effective protective features should be regarded as Compatibility Group B; an article with its own means of initiation, without two effective protective features, is Compatibility Group F. A means of initiation which itself possesses two effective protective features is Compatibility Group D, and an article with its own means of initiation which possesses two effective features is Compatibility Group D or E. A means of initiation, adjudged as having two effective protective features, must be approved by the Associate Administrator. A common and effective way of achieving the necessary degree of protection is to use a means of initiation which incorporates two or more independent safety features.
Jet perforating guns, charged, oil well, without detonator. Articles consisting of a steel tube or metallic strip, into which are inserted shaped charges connected by detonating cord, without means of initiation.
Lighters, fuse. Articles of various design actuated by friction, percussion, or electricity and used to ignite safety fuse.
Mass explosion. Explosion which affects almost the entire load virtually instantaneously.
Mines. Articles consisting normally of metal or composition receptacles and bursting charge. They are designed to be operated by the passage of ships, vehicles, or personnel. The term includes Bangalore torpedoes.
Phlegmatized. The term means that a substance (or “phlegmatizer”) has been added to an explosive to enhance its safety in handling and transport. The phlegmatizer renders the explosive insensitive, or less sensitive, to the following actions: heat, shock, impact, percussion or friction. Typical phlegmatizing agents include, but are not limited to: wax, paper, water, polymers (such as chlorofluoropolymers), alcohol and oils (such as petroleum jelly and paraffin).
Powder, smokeless. Substance based on nitrocellulose used as propellant. The term includes propellants with a single base (nitrocellulose (NC) alone), those with a double base (such as NC and nitroglycerin (NG)) and those with a triple base (such as NC/NG/nitroguanidine). Cast pressed or bag-charges of smokeless powder are listed under charges, propelling and charges, propelling for cannon.
Primers, cap type. Articles consisting of a metal or plastic cap containing a small amount of primary explosive mixture that is readily ignited by impact. They serve as igniting elements in small arms cartridges and in percussion primers for propelling charges.
Primers, tubular. Articles consisting of a primer for ignition and an auxiliary charge of deflagrating explosive, such as black powder, used to ignite the propelling charge in a cartridge case for cannon, etc.
Projectiles. Articles, such as a shell or bullet, which are projected from a cannon or other artillery gun, rifle, or other small arm. They may be inert, with or without tracer, or may contain a burster, expelling charge or bursting charge. The term includes: projectiles, inert, with tracer; projectiles, with burster or expelling charge; and projectiles, with bursting charge.
Release devices, explosive. Articles consisting of a small charge of explosive with means of initiation. They sever rods or links to release equipment quickly.
Rocket motors. Articles consisting of a solid, liquid, or hypergolic propellant contained in a cylinder fitted with one or more nozzles. They are designed to propel a rocket or guided missile. The term includes: rocket motors; rocket motors with hypergolic liquids with or without an expelling charge; and rocket motors, liquid fuelled.
Rockets. Articles containing a rocket motor and a payload which may be an explosive warhead or other device. The term includes: guided missiles; rockets, line-throwing; rockets, liquid fuelled, with bursting charge; rockets, with bursting charge; rockets, with expelling charge; and rockets, with inert head.
Signals. Articles consisting of pyrotechnic substances designed to produce signals by means of sound, flame, or smoke or any combination thereof. The term includes: signal devices, hand; signals, distress ship; signals, railway track, explosive; signals, smoke.
Sounding devices, explosive. Articles consisting of a charge of detonating explosive. They are dropped from ships and function when they reach a predetermined depth or the sea bed.
Substance, explosive, very insensitive (Substance, EVI) N.O.S. Substances which present a mass explosive hazard but which are so insensitive that there is very little probability of initiation, or of transition from burning to detonation under normal conditions of transport and which have passed test series 5.
Torpedoes. Articles containing an explosive or non-explosive propulsion system and designed to be propelled through water. They may contain an inert head or warhead. The term includes: torpedoes, liquid fuelled, with inert head; torpedoes, liquid fuelled, with or without bursting charge; and torpedoes, with bursting charge.
Tracers for ammunition. Sealed articles containing pyrotechnic substances, designed to reveal the trajectory of a projectile.
Warheads. Articles containing detonating explosives, designed to be fitted to a rocket, guided missile, or torpedo. They may contain a burster or expelling charge or bursting charge. The term includes: warhead rocket with bursting charge; and warheads, torpedo, with bursting charge.