49 CFR 31.2 - Definitions.
Authority means the Department of Transportation.
Authority head means the Assistant Secretary or Deputy Assistant Secretary for Budget and Programs, Department of Transportation.
Benefit means, in the context of “statement,” anything of value, including but not limited to any advantage, preference, privilege, license, permit, favorable decision, ruling, status, or loan guarantee.
Claim means any request, demand, or submission -
(a) Made to the authority for property, services, or money (including money representing grants, loans, insurance, or benefits);
(b) Made to a recipient of property, services, or money from the authority or to a party to a contract with the authority -
(1) For property or services if the United States -
(i) Provided such property or services;
(ii) Provided any portion of the funds for the purchase of such property or services; or
(iii) Will reimburse such recipient or party for the purchase of such property or services; or
(2) For the payment of money (including money representing grants, loans, insurance, or benefits) if the United States -
(i) Provided any portion of the money requested or demanded; or
(ii) Will reimburse such recipient or party for any portion of the money paid on such request or demand; or
(c) Made to the authority which has the effect of decreasing an obligation to pay or account for property, services, or money.
Complaint means the administrative complaint served by the reviewing official on the defendant under § 31.7.
Defendant means any person alleged in a complaint under § 31.7 to be liable for a civil penalty or assessment under § 31.3.
Government means the United States Government.
Individual means a natural person.
Initial decision means the written decision of the ALJ required by §§ 31.10 or 31.37 and includes a revised initial decision issued following a remand or a motion for reconsideration.
Investigating official means the Inspector General of the Department of Transportation or an officer or employee of the Office of Inspector General designated by the Inspector General and serving in a position for which the rate of basic pay is not less than the minimum rate of basic pay for grade GS-16 under the General Schedule.
Knows or has reason to know, means that a person, with respect to a claim or statement -
(a) Has actual knowledge that the claim or statement is false, fictitious, or fraudulent;
(b) Acts in deliberate ignorance of the truth or falsity of the claim or statement; or
(c) Acts in reckless disregard of the truth or falsity of the claim or statement.
Makes, wherever it appears, shall include the terms presents, submits, and causes to be made, presented, or submitted. As the context requires, making or made, shall likewise include the corresponding forms of such terms.
Person means any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or private organization, and includes the plural of that term.
Representative means an attorney who is a member in good standing of the bar of any State, Territory, or possession of the United States or of the District of Columbia or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. This definition is not intended to foreclose pro se appearances. An individual may appear for himself or herself, and a corporation or other entity may appear by an owner, officer, or employee of the corporation or entity.
Reviewing official means the Deputy General Counsel of the Department of Transportation, or other officer or employee of the Department who is designated by the Deputy General Counsel and eligible under 31 U.S.C. 3801(a)(8).
Statement means any representation, certification, affirmation, document, record, or accounting or bookkeeping entry made -
(a) With respect to a claim or to obtain the approval or payment of a claim (including relating to eligibility to make a claim); or
(b) With respect to (including relating to eligibility for) -
(1) A contract with, or bid or proposal for a contract with; or
(2) A grant, loan, or benefit from,