49 CFR Appendix D to Part 238, Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives
The requirements contained in this appendix are intended to address the structural and puncture resistance properties of the locomotive fuel tank to reduce the risk of fuel spillage to acceptable levels under derailment and minor collision conditions.
(a)Structural strength -
(1)Load case 1 - minor derailment. The end plate of the fuel tank shall support a sudden loading of one-half the weight of the car body at a vertical acceleration of 2g, without exceeding the ultimate strength of the material. The load is assumed to be supported on one rail, within an eight inch band (plus or minus) at a point nominally above the head of the rail, on tangent track. Consideration should be given in the design of the fuel tank to maximize the vertical clearance between the top of the rail and the bottom of the fuel tank.
(2)Load case 2 - jackknifed locomotive. The fuel tank shall support transversely at the center a sudden loading equivalent to one half the weight of the locomotive at a vertical acceleration of 2g, without exceeding the ultimate strength of the material. The load is assumed to be supported on one rail, distributed between the longitudinal center line and the edge of the tank bottom, with a rail head surface of two inches.
(3)Load case 3 - side impact. In a side impact collision by an 80,000 pound Gross Vehicle Weight tractor/trailer at the longitudinal center of the fuel tank, the fuel tank shall withstand, without exceeding the ultimate strength, a 200,000 pound load (2.5g) distributed over an area of six inches by forty-eight inches (half the bumper area) at a height of thirty inches above the rail (standard DOT bumper height).
(4)Load case 4 - penetration resistance. The minimum thickness of the sides, bottom sheet and end plates of the fuel tank shall be equivalent to a 5/16-inch steel plate with a 25,000 pounds-per-square-inch yield strength (where the thickness varies inversely with the square root of yield strength). The lower one third of the end plates shall have the equivalent penetration resistance by the above method of a 3/4-inch steel plate with a 25,000 pounds-per-square-inch yield strength. This may be accomplished by any combination of materials or other mechanical protection.
(b)Sideswipe. To minimize fuel tank damage during sideswipes (railroad vehicles and grade crossings), all drain plugs, clean-out ports, inspection covers, sight glasses, gauge openings, etc., must be flush with the tank surface or adequately protected to avoid catching foreign objects or breakage. All seams must be protected or flush to avoid catching foreign objects.
(c)Spill controls. Vents and fills shall be designed to avert spillage of fuel in the event of a roll over.