50 CFR 14.106 - Primary enclosures.
(a) The Container Requirements of the Live Animal Regulations (LAR), 20th edition, October 1, 1993, published by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) shall be complied with by all parties transporting wild mammals or birds to the United States. The incorporation by reference of the LAR was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from IATA, 2000 Peel St., Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2R4. Copies may be inspected at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Headquarters (see 50 CFR 2.1(b) for address) or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.
(b) A primary enclosure shall be constructed so that -
(1) The strength of the enclosure is sufficient to contain the mammal or bird and to withstand the normal effects of transport;
(2) The interior of the enclosure is free from any protrusion that could be injurious to the mammal or bird within;
(3) No part of the animal can extend or protrude outside of the primary enclosure which may result in injury to the contained animal, to nearby persons or animals, or to handlers of the primary enclosure;
(4) Access to the primary enclosure is closed and secured with an animal-proof device designed to prevent accidental opening and release of the mammal or bird;
(5) The opening of the enclosure is easily accessible for either emergency removal or inspection of the mammal or bird by authorized personnel without the risk of escape of the mammal or bird;
(6) The enclosure has sufficient openings to ensure adequate circulation of air at all times.
(7) The material of which the primary enclosure is constructed is not treated with any paint, preservative, or other chemical that is injurious or otherwise harmful to the health or well-being of mammals and birds.
(c) Unless the enclosure is permanently affixed in the conveyance or has an open top for certain large mammals, spacer bars allowing circulation of air around the enclosure shall be fitted to the exterior of its top, sides, and base. Spacer bars on an enclosure need extend no more than 6 inches (15 centimeters) from the surface of the enclosure. Within this 6 inch limit, the spacers on an enclosure containing one animal shall extend a distance equal to at least 10 percent of the longer dimension of the surface to which they are attached, and the spacers on an enclosure containing more than one animal shall extend a distance equal to at least 20 percent of the longer dimension of the surface to which they are attached. Hand-holds may serve as spacer bars for the sides of the enclosure to which they are attached. A primary enclosure constructed with one or more slanted or curved walls containing ventilation openings need not be fitted with spacer bars on such walls.
(d) An enclosure that is not permanently affixed within the conveyance shall have adequate hand-holds or other devices for lifting by hand or to facilitate lifting and carrying by machine. Such hand-holds or other devices shall be made an integral part of the enclosure, shall enable it to be lifted without excessive tipping, and shall be designed so that the person handling the enclosure will not come in contact with the animals contained therein.
(e) An enclosure shall have a solid, leak-proof bottom or removable, leak-proof collection tray under a slatted or wire mesh floor. The slatted or wire mesh floor shall be designed and constructed so that the spaces between the slats or the holes in the mesh cannot trap the limbs of animals contained within the enclosure. An enclosure for mammals shall contain unused absorbent litter on the solid bottom or in the leak-proof tray in sufficient quantity to absorb and cover excreta. This litter shall be safe and nontoxic and shall not resemble food normally consumed by the mammals. An enclosure used to transport marine mammals in water, in a waterproof enclosure, a sling, or on foam is exempt from the requirement to contain litter. An enclosure used to transport birds shall not contain litter, unless it is specified in writing by the examining veterinarian as medically necessary.
(f) If an enclosure has been previously used to transport or store wild mammals or birds, it shall have been cleaned and sanitized in a manner that will destroy pathogenic agents and pests injurious to the health of mammals and birds before the enclosure can be re-used.
(g) An enclosure that is not permanently affixed in the conveyance shall be clearly marked in English on the outside of the top and one or more sides of the enclosure, in letters not less than 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) in height, “Live Animals” or “Wild Animals”, “Do Not Tip,” “Only Authorized Personnel May Open Container,” and other appropriate or required instructions. All enclosure sides shall also be conspicuously marked on the outside with arrows to indicate the correct upright position of the enclosure. These arrows should extend up the sides of the enclosure so that the point of the arrow is visible and clearly indicates the top of the enclosure.
(h) Food and water instructions as specified in § 14.108, information regarding what constitutes obvious signs of stress in the species being transported, and information about any drugs or medication to be administered by the accompanying veterinary attendant shall be securely attached to each enclosure. Copies of shipping documents accompanying the shipment shall also be securely attached to the primary enclosure. Original documents shall be carried in the carrier's pouch or manifest container or by the shipper's attendant accompanying the wild mammal or bird.
(i) Any food and water troughs shall be securely attached to the interior of the enclosure in such a manner that the troughs can be filled from outside the enclosure. Any opening providing access to a trough shall be capable of being securely closed with an animal-proof device. A water trough in an enclosure containing birds shall contain a foam or sponge insert, a perforated wooden block, or other suitable device to prevent spillage or drowning.
(j) When a primary enclosure is permanently affixed within a conveyance so that its front opening is the only source of ventilation, the opening shall face the outside of the conveyance or an unobstructed aisle or passageway within the conveyance. Such an aisle or passageway shall be at least 12 inches (30 centimeters) wide. The opening in the primary enclosure shall occupy at least 90 percent of the total surface area of the front wall of the enclosure and be covered with bars or wire mesh.