50 CFR 23.89 - What are the criteria for listing species in Appendix I or II?
(a) Purpose. Article XV of the Treaty sets out the procedures for amending CITES Appendices I and II. A species must meet trade and biological criteria listed in the CITES resolution for amendment of Appendices I and II. When determining whether a species qualifies for inclusion in or removal from Appendix I or II, or transfer from one Appendix to another, we will:
(1) Consult with States, Tribes, range countries, relevant experts, other Federal agencies, and the general public.
(2) Utilize the best available biological information.
(3) Evaluate that information against the criteria in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section.
(b) Listing a species in Appendix I. Any species qualifies for inclusion in Appendix I if it is or may be affected by trade and meets, or is likely to meet, at least one biological criterion for Appendix I.
(1) These criteria are:
(i) The size of the wild population is small.
(ii) Area of distribution is restricted.
(iii) There is an observed, inferred, or projected marked decline in the population size in the wild.
(2) Factors to be considered include, but are not limited to, population and range fragmentation; habitat availability or quality; area of distribution; taxon-specific vulnerabilities due to life history, behavior, or other intrinsic factors, such as migration; population structure and niche requirements; threats from extrinsic factors such as the form of exploitation, introduced species, habitat degradation and destruction, and stochastic events; or decreases in recruitment.
(c) Listing a species in Appendix II due to actual or potential threats. Any species qualifies for inclusion in Appendix II if it is or may be affected by trade and meets at least one of the criteria for listing in Appendix II based on actual or potential threats to that species. These criteria are:
(2) It is known, or can be inferred or projected, that the regulation of trade in the species is required to ensure that the harvest of specimens from the wild is not reducing the wild population to a level at which its survival might be threatened by continued harvest or other influences.
(d) Listing a species in Appendix II due to similarity of appearance or other factors. Any species qualifies for inclusion in Appendix II if it meets either of the criteria for listing in Appendix II due to similarity of appearance or other factors. These criteria are:
(1) The specimens of the species in the form in which they are traded resemble specimens of a species listed in Appendix II due to criteria in paragraph (c) of this section or in Appendix I, such that enforcement officers who encounter specimens of such similar CITES species are unlikely to be able to distinguish between them.
(e) Other issues. We will evaluate any potential changes to the Appendices, taking into consideration other issues, including but not limited to, split-listing, annotation, listings of higher taxa and hybrids, and specific listing issues related to plants and commercially exploited aquatic species.
(g) Proposal. If a Party determines that a taxon qualifies for inclusion in or removal from Appendix I or II, or transfer from one Appendix to another, a proposal may be submitted to the Secretariat for consideration by the CoP.
(1) The proposal should indicate the intent of the specific action (such as inclusion in Appendix I or II); be specific and accurate as to the parts and derivatives to be included in the listing; ensure that any proposed annotation is consistent with existing annotations; state the criteria against which the proposal is to be judged; and provide a justification for the basis on which the species meets the relevant criteria.
(2) The proposal must be in a prescribed format. Contact the U.S. Scientific Authority for a copy (see § 23.7).