§ 1-300. Types of Citation Principles
The detailed principles of citation can be conceived of as
falling into four categories:
- Core Identification Principles: Principles that specify
the minimum elements necessary to identify a cited document or document
portion in terms that will allow the reader to retrieve it.
- Other Minimum Content Principles: Principles
that call for the inclusion in a citation of additional information items
beyond a retrieval formula the full name of the author of a journal
article, the year a decision was rendered or a book, published. Some of these principles are conditional, that is, they require the
inclusion of a particular item under specified circumstances so that the absence
of that item from a citation represents that those circumstances do not exist. The
subsequent history of a case must be indicated when it exists, for example;
the edition of a book must be indicated if there have been more than one. Most
of these additional items either furnish a "name" for the cited
document or information that will allow the reader to evaluate its importance.
- Compacting Principles: Principles that reduce
the space taken up by the information items included in a citation. These
include standard abbreviations ("United States Code" becomes "U.S.C.")
and principles that eliminate redundancy. (If the deciding court is communicated
by the name of the reporter, it need not be repeated in the citation's concluding
parentheses along with the date as it should otherwise be.)
- Format Principles: Principles about punctuation,
typography, order of items within a citation, and the like. Such principles
apply to the optional elements in a citation as well as the mandatory ones.
One need not report to the reader that a cited Supreme Court case was decided
5-4; but if one does, there is a standard form.