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§ 4-100. Words Abbreviated in Case Names [BB|ALWD]

Set out below is a table of words and their abbreviations with links to examples. It is a composite of those contained in The Bluebook and the ALWD Guide to Legal Citation.


Abbreviate the listed words wherever they appear in a party's name that is part of a citation. In addition, abbreviate any state or smaller geographic unit included in a party name unless it alone is the party name. (See § 4-500.) When the case is being referred to in a sentence of the text itself rather than simply as a citation only the words starred [*] in the table below should be abbreviated, and then only when not at the beginning of a party's name. Be aware, though, that there are other approaches to case name abbreviation practiced by courts and lawyers throughout the United States. (See Should It Be “Commissioner”, “Comm’r”, or “Commr.”?, http://citeblog.access-to-law.com/?p=113.) If you employ one of them instead of the approach set out below, do so consistently. The existence of divergent approaches gives rise to a very real need to review the abbreviations used in citations you have extracted from the writing of others. Case citations in decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court, the California Supreme Court, and the New York Court of Appeals, for example, do not adhere to the abbreviation norms summarized here.

Any other word of eight letters or more not on the following list may also be abbreviated if the abbreviation chosen saves substantial space and reasonably connotes the original word. For a number of words, but following no consistent pattern, both manuals occasionally employ contractions (e.g., Eng'r and Int'l, though curiously Envtl.).

Except when the abbreviation list explicitly provides for the plural, the plural of a listed word is abbreviated by adding an "s" to the abbreviation of the singular.


A-B     C    
Academic or Academy Acad. «e.g.» Casualty Cas. «e.g.»
Administrative or Administration Admin. «e.g.» Center or Centre Ctr. «e.g.»
Administrator or Administratrix Adm'[r,x] «e.g.» Central Cent. «e.g.»
Advertising Adver. «e.g.» Chemical Chem. «e.g.»
Agriculture or Agricultural Agric. «e.g.» Coalition Coal. «e.g.»
Alternative Alt. «e.g.» College Coll. «e.g.»
America or American Am. «e.g.» Commission Comm'n «e.g.»
And * & «e.g.» Commissioner Comm'r «e.g.»
Associate Assoc. «e.g.» Committee Comm. «e.g.»
Association * Ass'n «e.g.» Communication Commc'n «e.g.»
Atlantic Atl. «e.g.» Community Cmty. «e.g.»
Authority Auth. «e.g.» Company * Co. «e.g.»
Automobile or Automotive Auto. «e.g.» Compensation Comp. «e.g.»
Avenue Ave. «e.g.» Computer Comput. «e.g.»
Bankruptcy Bankr. «e.g.» Condominium Condo. «e.g.»
Board Bd. «e.g.» Congress or Congressional Cong. «e.g.»
Broadcast or Broadcasting Broad. «e.g.» Consolidated Consol. «e.g.»
Brotherhood Bhd. «e.g.» Construction Constr. «e.g.»
Brothers * Bros. «e.g.» Continental Cont'l «e.g.»
Building Bldg. «e.g.» Cooperative Coop. «e.g.»
Business Bus. «e.g.» Corporation * Corp. «e.g.»
      Correction, Correctional, or Corrections Corr. «e.g.»
      County Cnty. «e.g.»


D-E   F-K    
Defender or Defense Def. «e.g.» Federal Fed. «e.g.»
Department Dep't «e.g.» Federation Fed'n «e.g.»
Detention Det. «e.g.» Fidelity Fid. «e.g.»
Development Dev. «e.g.» Finance, Financial, or Financing Fin. «e.g.»
Digital Dig. «e.g.» Foundation Found. «e.g.»
Director Dir. «e.g.» General Gen. «e.g.»
Discount Disc. «e.g.» Gender Gend. «e.g.»
Distributor or Distributing Distrib. «e.g.» Government Gov't «e.g.»
District Dist. «e.g.» Group Grp. «e.g.»
Division Div. «e.g.» Guaranty Guar. «e.g.»
East or Eastern E. «e.g.» Hospital Hosp. «e.g.»
Economic, Economical, Economics, or Economy Econ. «e.g.» Housing Hous. «e.g.»
Education or Educational Educ. «e.g.» Import, Importation, or Importer Imp. «e.g.»
Electric, Electrical, Electricity, or Electronic Elec. «e.g.» Incorporated * Inc. «e.g.»
Employee Emp. «e.g.» Indemnity Indem. «e.g.»
Employer or Employment Emp'[r,t] «e.g.» Independent Indep. «e.g.»
Engineer Eng'r «e.g.» Industry, Industries, or Industrial Indus. «e.g.»
Engineering Eng'g «e.g.» Information Info. «e.g.»
Enterprise Enter. «e.g.» Institute or Institution Inst. «e.g.»
Entertainment Entm't «e.g.» Insurance Ins. «e.g.»
Environment Env't «e.g.» International Int'l «e.g.»
Environmental Envtl. «e.g.» Investment Inv. «e.g.»
Equality Equal. «e.g.» Investor Inv'r «e.g.»
Equipment Equip. «e.g.» Laboratory Lab. «e.g.»
Examiner Exam'r «e.g.» Liability Liab. «e.g.»
Exchange Exch. «e.g.» Limited * Ltd. «e.g.»
Executive Exec. «e.g.» Litigation Litig. «e.g.»
Executor or Executrix Ex'[r,x] «e.g.»      
Exploration or Exploratory Expl. «e.g.»      
Export, Exportation, or Exporter Exp. «e.g.»      


M-O   P-R    
Machine or Machinery Mach. «e.g.» Pacific Pac. «e.g.»
Maintenance Maint. «e.g.» Partnership P'ship «e.g.»
Management Mgmt. «e.g.» Person, Personal, or Personnel Pers. «e.g.»
Manufacturer Mfr. «e.g.» Pharmaceutics or Pharmaceuticals Pharm. «e.g.»
Manufacturing Mfg. «e.g.» Preserve or Preservation Pres. «e.g.»
Maritime Mar. «e.g.» Probate or Probation Prob. «e.g.»
Market Mkt. «e.g.» Product or Production Prod. «e.g.»
Marketing Mktg. «e.g.» Professional Prof'l «e.g.»
Mechanic or Mechanical Mech. «e.g.» Property Prop. «e.g.»
Medical or Medicine Med. «e.g.» Protection Prot. «e.g.»
Memorial Mem'l «e.g.» Public Pub. «e.g.»
Merchant, Merchandise, or Merchandising Merch. «e.g.» Publication Publ'n «e.g.»
Metropolitan Metro. «e.g.» Publishing Publ'g «e.g.»
Mortgage Mortg. «e.g.»      
Municipal Mun. «e.g.» Railroad R.R. «e.g.»
Mutual Mut. «e.g.» Railway Ry. «e.g.»
National Nat'l «e.g.» Refining Ref. «e.g.»
North or Northern N. «e.g.» Regional Reg'l «e.g.»
Northeast or Northeastern Ne. «e.g.» Rehabilitation Rehab. «e.g.»
Northwest or Northwestern Nw. «e.g.» Reproduction or Reproductive Reprod. «e.g.»
Number * No. «e.g.» Resource or Resources Res. «e.g.»
Opinion Op. «e.g.» Restaurant Rest. «e.g.»
Organization or Organizing Org. «e.g.» Retirement Ret. «e.g.»
      Road Rd. «e.g.»


S     T-Z    
Savings Sav. «e.g.» Technical, Technological, or Technology Tech. «e.g.»
School or Schools Sch. «e.g.» Telecommunication Telecomm. «e.g.»
Science or Scientific Sci. «e.g.» Telephone or Telegraph Tel. «e.g.»
Secretary Sec'y «e.g.» Temporary Temp. «e.g.»
Security or Securities Sec. «e.g.» Township Twp. «e.g.»
Service Serv. «e.g.» Transcontinental Transcon. «e.g.»
Shareholder S'holder «e.g.» Transport or Transportation Transp. «e.g.»
Social Soc. «e.g.» Trustee Tr. «e.g.»
Society Soc'y «e.g.» Turnpike Tpk. «e.g.»
Solution Sol. «e.g.» Uniform Unif. «e.g.»
South or Southern S. «e.g.» University Univ. «e.g.»
Southeast or Southeastern Se. «e.g.» Utility Util. «e.g.»
Southwest or Southwestern Sw. «e.g.» Village Vill. «e.g.»
Steamship or Steamships S.S. «e.g.» West or Western W. «e.g.»
Street St. «e.g.»      
Subcommittee Subcomm. «e.g.»      
Surety Sur. «e.g.»      
System or Systems Sys. «e.g.»      


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