§ 6-300. Signals [BB|ALWD]
Citing an authority without any preceding word to clarify
or qualify its connection to the text represents that the citation directly
states the proposition or identifies a quotation or authority with which the
citation is associated «e.g.».
There is a standard set of clarifying or qualifying words used with citations.
Placed in front of a citation these words are italicized (or underlined). When
instead they form the verb of a sentence that includes the citation they are
not italicized (or underlined). No comma separates the signal from the rest
of the citation, except for "e.g." which
needs a comma before and after it. Only the signal beginning a citation sentence
has its initial letter capitalized. The standard clarifying or qualifying words
Signals that indicate support.
- Authority states the proposition with which the citation is associated.
Other authorities, not cited, do as well «e.g.».
"E.g." used with other signals
(in which case it is preceded by a comma) similarly indicates the existence
of other authorities not cited.
- Used following citation to authority referred to in text when there
are additional authorities that either state or clearly support the proposition
with which the citation is associated, but the text quotes only one. Similarly,
the law of one jurisdiction may be cited as being in accord with that
of another «e.g.».
- Authority supports the proposition with which the citation is associated
either implicitly or in the form of dicta «e.g.».
- See also
- Authority is additional support for the proposition with which the citation
is associated (but less direct than that indicated by "see"
or "accord"). "See
also" is commonly used to refer readers to authorities already
cited or discussed «e.g.».
The use of a parenthetical explanation of the source material's relevance
following a citation introduced by "see
also" is encouraged.
- Authority supports by analogy "Cf."
literally means "compare." The citation will only appear relevant to the
reader if it is explained. Consequently, parenthetical explanations of
the analogy are strongly recommended «e.g.».
Signals that suggest a useful comparison.
- Compare ... with
- Comparison of authorities that supports proposition. Either side of
the comparison can have more than one item linked with "and"
Parenthetical explanations of comparison are strongly recommended.
Signals that indicate contradiction.
- Authority directly states the contrary of the proposition with which
the citation is associated «e.g.».
- But see
- Authority clearly supports the contrary of the proposition with which
citation is associated «e.g.».
- But cf.
- Authority supports the contrary of the position with which the citation
is associated by analogy. Parenthetical explanations of the analogy are
strongly recommended. The word "but"
is omitted from the signal when it follows another negative signal «e.g.».
Signals that indicate background material.
- See generally
- Authority presents useful background. Parenthetical explanations of
the source materials' relevance are encouraged «e.g.».
Combining a signal with "e.g."
- In addition to the cited authority, there are numerous others that state,
support, or contradict the proposition (with the other signal indicating
which) but citation to them would not be helpful or necessary. The preceding
signal is separated from "e.g."
by a comma «e.g.».