Segregation in courtrooms is unlawful and may not be enforced through contempt citations for disobedience1785 or through other means. Treatment of parties to or witnesses in judicial actions based on their race is impermissible.1786 Jail inmates have a right not to be segregated by race unless there is some overriding necessity arising out of the process of keeping order.1787
- Johnson v. Virginia, 373 U.S. 61 (1963).
- Hamilton v. Alabama, 376 U.S. 650 (1964) (reversing contempt conviction of witness who refused to answer questions so long as prosecutor addressed her by her first name).
- Lee v. Washington, 390 U.S. 333 (1968); Wilson v. Kelley, 294 F. Supp. 1005 (N.D.Ga.), aff’d, 393 U.S. 266 (1968).