Iowa Admin. Code r. 441-78.3 - Inpatient hospital services

Current through Register Vol. 44, No. 20, April 6, 2022

Payment for inpatient hospital admission is approved when it meets the criteria for inpatient hospital care as determined by the Iowa Medicaid enterprise. All cases are subject to random retrospective review and may be subject to a more intensive retrospective review if abuse is suspected. In addition, transfers, outliers, and readmissions within 31 days are subject to random review. Selected admissions and procedures are subject to a 100 percent review before the services are rendered. Medicaid payment for inpatient hospital admissions and continued stays are approved when the admissions and continued stays are determined to meet the criteria for inpatient hospital care. (Cross reference 78.28(6)) The criteria are available from the IME Medical Services Unit, 100 Army Post Road, Des Moines, Iowa 50315, or in local hospital utilization review offices. No payment will be made for waiver days.

See rule 441-78.31 (249A) for policies regarding payment of hospital outpatient services.

If the recipient is eligible for inpatient or outpatient hospital care through the Medicare program, payment will be made for deductibles and coinsurance as set out in 441-subrule 79.1(22).

The DRG payment calculations include any special services required by the hospital, including a private room.

(1) Payment for Medicaid-certified physical rehabilitation units will be approved for the day of admission but not the day of discharge or death.
(2) No payment will be approved for private duty nursing.
(3) Certification of inpatient hospital care shall be the same as that in effect in part A of Medicare. The hospital admittance records are sufficient for the original certification.
(4) Services provided for intestinal or gastric bypass surgery for treatment of obesity requires prior approval, which must be obtained by the attending physician before surgery is performed.
(5) Payment will be approved for drugs provided inpatients subject to the same provisions specified in 78.2(1) and 78.2(4)"b "(1) to (10) except for 78.2(4)"b "(7). The basis of payment for drugs administered to inpatients is through the DRG reimbursement.
a. Payment will be approved for drugs and supplies provided outpatients subject to the same provisions specified in 78.2(1) through 78.2(4) except for 78.2(4)"b "(7). The basis of payment for drugs provided outpatients is through a combination of Medicaid-determined fee schedules and ambulatory payment classification, pursuant to 441-subrule 79.1(16).
b. In order to be paid for the administration of a vaccine covered under the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Program, a hospital must enroll in the VFC program. Payment for the vaccine will be approved only if the VFC program stock has been depleted.
(6) Payment for nursing care provided by a hospital shall be made to those hospitals which have been certified by the department of inspections and appeals as meeting the standards for a nursing facility.
(7) Payment for inpatient hospital tests for purposes of diagnosis and treatment shall be made only when the tests are specifically ordered for the diagnosis and treatment of a particular patient's condition by the attending physician or other licensed practitioner acting within the scope of practice as defined by law, who is responsible for that patient's diagnosis or treatment.
(8) Rescinded IAB 2/6/91, effective 4/1/91.
(9) Payment will be made for sterilizations in accordance with 78.1(16).
(10) Payment will be approved for organ and tissue transplant services, as specified in subrule 78.1(20). Kidney, cornea, skin, bone, allogeneic bone marrow, autologous bone marrow, heart, liver, and lung transplants are covered as specified in subrule 78.1(20). Lung transplants are payable at Medicare-designated lung transplant centers only. Heart and liver transplants are payable when performed at facilities that meet the following criteria:
a. Recipient selection and education.
(1)Selection. The transplant center must have written criteria based on medical need for transplantation for final facility selection of recipients. These criteria should include an equitable, consistent and practical protocol for selection of recipients. The criteria must be at least as strict as those specified by Medicare.
(2)Education. The transplant center will provide a written plan for recipient education. It shall include educational plans for recipient, family and significant others during all phases of the program. These phases shall include:

Intake.

Preparation and waiting period.

Preadmission.

Hospitalization.

Discharge planning.

Follow-up.

b. Staffing and resource commitment.
(1)Transplant surgeon. The transplant center must have on staff a qualified transplant surgeon. The surgeon must have received at least one year of training at a transplant center approved by the

American Society of Transplant Surgeons under the direction of an experienced transplant surgeon and must have had at least two years of experience in all facets of transplant surgery specific to the surgeon's specialty. This experience must include management of recipients' presurgical and postsurgical care and actual experience as a member of a transplant team at the institution. The transplant surgeon will have an understanding of the principles of and demonstrated expertise in the use of immunosuppressive therapy.

The transplant surgeon will be certified by the American Board of Thoracic Surgery or equivalent for heart transplants and the American Board of Surgery or equivalent for liver transplants.

The transplant surgeon will be the defined leader of a stable, established transplant team that has a strong commitment to the transplant program.

(2)Transplant team. The transplant team will be clearly defined with leadership and corresponding responsibilities of all team members identified.

The team should consist of:

A surgeon director.

A board-certified internist or pediatrician with training and expertise in organ transplantation medicine and clinical use of immunosuppressive regimens.

The transplant center will assume responsibility for initial training and continuing education of the transplant team and ancillary personnel. The center will maintain records that demonstrate competency in achieving, maintaining and improving skills in the distinct areas of expertise of each of the team members.

(3)Physicians. The transplant center will have on staff or available for consultation physicians with the following areas of expertise:

Anesthesiology.

Cardiology.

Dialysis.

Gastroenterology.

Hepatology.

Immunology.

Infectious diseases.

Nephrology. Neurology.

Pathology.

Pediatrics.

Psychiatry.

Pulmonary medicine.

Radiology.

Rehabilitation medicine.

Liaison with the recipient's permanent physician is established for the purpose of providing continuity and management of the recipient's long-term care.

(4)Support personnel and resources. The center must have a commitment of sufficient resources and planning for implementation and operation of the transplant program. Indicators of the commitment will include the following:

Persons with expertise in the following areas available at the transplant center:

Anesthesiology.

Blood bank services.

Cardiology.

Cardiovascular surgery.

Dialysis.

Dietary services.

Gastroenterology.

Infection control.

Laboratory services (pathology, microbiology, immunology, tissue typing, and monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs).

Legal counsel familiar with transplantation laws and regulations.

Nursing service department with staff available who have expertise in the care of transplant recipients, especially in managing immunosuppressed patients and hemodynamic support.

Respiratory therapy.

Pharmaceutical services.

Physical therapy.

Psychiatry.

Psycho-social.

The center will have active cardiovascular, medical, and surgical programs with the ability and willingness to perform diagnostic and evaluative procedures appropriate to transplants on an emergency and ongoing basis.

The center will have designated an adequate number of intensive care and general service beds to support the transplant center.

(5)Laboratory. Each transplant center must have direct local 24-hour per day access to histocompatibility testing facilities. These facilities must meet the Standards for Histocompatibility Testing set forth by the Committee on Quality Assurance and Standards of the American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (ASHI). As specified by ASHI, the director of the facility shall hold a doctoral degree in biological science, or be a physician, and subsequent to graduation shall have had four years' experience in immunology, two of which were devoted to formal training in human histocompatibility testing, documented to be professionally competent by external measures such as national proficiency testing, participation in national or international workshops or publications in peer-reviewed journals. The laboratory must successfully participate in a regional or national testing program.
c. Experience and survival rates.
(1)Experience. Centers will be given a minimum volume requirement of 12 heart or 12 liver transplants that should be met within one year. Due to special considerations such as patient case mix or donor availability, an additional one year conditional approval may be given if the minimum volume is not met the first year.

For approval of an extrarenal organ transplant program it is highly desirable that the institution:

1. has available a complete team of surgeons, physicians, and other specialists with specific experience in transplantation of that organ, or 2. has an established approved renal transplant program at that institution and personnel with expertise in the extrarenal organ system itself.
(2)Survival rates. The transplant center will achieve a record of acceptable performance consistent with the performance and outcomes at other successful designated transplant centers. The center will collect and maintain recipient and graft survival and complication rates. A level of satisfactory success and safety will be demonstrated with bases for substantial probability of continued performance at an acceptable level.

To encourage a high level of performance, transplant programs must achieve and maintain a minimum one-year patient survival rate of 70 percent for heart transplants and 50 percent for liver transplants.

d. Organ procurement. The transplant center will participate in a nationwide organ procurement and typing network.

Detailed plans must exist for organ procurement yielding viable transplantable organs in reasonable numbers, meeting established legal and ethical criteria.

The transplant center must be a member of the National Organ Procurement and Transplant Network.

e. Maintenance of data, research, review and evaluation.
(1)Maintenance of data. The transplant center will collect and maintain data on the following:

Risk and benefit.

Morbidity and mortality.

Long-term survival.

Quality of life.

Recipient demographic information.

These data should be maintained in the computer at the transplant center monthly.

The transplant center will submit the above data to the United Network of Organ Sharing yearly.

(2)Research The transplant center will have a plan for and a commitment to research. Ongoing research regarding the transplanted organs is required.

The transplant center will have a program in graduate medical education or have a formal agreement with a teaching institution for affiliation with a graduate medical education program.

(3)Review and evaluation. The transplant center will have a plan for ongoing evaluation of the transplantation program.

The transplant center will have a detailed plan for review and evaluation of recipient selection, preoperative, operative, postoperative and long-term management of the recipient.

The transplant center will conduct concurrent ongoing studies to ensure high quality services are provided in the transplantation program.

The transplant center will provide information to members of the transplant team and ancillary staff regarding the findings of the quality assurance studies. This information will be utilized to provide education geared toward interventions to improve staff performance and reduce complications occurring in the transplant process.

The transplant center will maintain records of all quality assurance and peer review activities concerning the transplantation program to document identification of problems or potential problems, intervention, education and follow-up.

f. Application procedure. A Medicare-designated heart, liver, or lung transplant facility needs only to submit evidence of this designation to the Iowa Medicaid enterprise provider services unit. The application procedure for other heart and liver facilities is as follows:
(1) An original and two copies of the application must be submitted on 8V2 by 11 inch paper, signed by a person authorized to do so. The facility must be a participating hospital under Medicaid and must specify its provider number, and the name and telephone number of a contact person should there be questions regarding the application.
(2) Information and data must be clearly stated, well organized and appropriately indexed to aid in its review against the criteria specified in this rule. Each page must be numbered.
(3) To the extent possible, the application should be organized into five sections corresponding to each of the five major criteria and addressing, in order, each of the subcriteria identified.
(4) The application should be mailed to the Iowa Medicaid enterprise provider services unit.
g. Review and approval of facilities. An organized review committee will be established to evaluate performance and survival statistics and make recommendations regarding approval as a designated transplant center based on acceptable performance standards established by the review organization and approved by the Medicaid agency.

There will be established protocol for the systematic evaluation of patient outcome including survival statistics.

Once a facility applies for approval and is approved as a heart or liver transplant facility for Medicaid purposes, it is obliged to report immediately to the department any events or changes which would affect its approved status. Specifically, a facility must report any significant decrease in its experience level or survival rates, the transplantation of patients who do not meet its patient selection criteria, the loss of key members of the transplant team, or any other major changes that could affect the performance of heart or liver transplants at the facility. Changes from the terms of approval may lead to withdrawal of approval for Medicaid coverage of heart or liver transplants performed at the facility.

(11) Payment will be approved for inpatient hospital care rendered a patient in connection with dental treatment only when the mental, physical, or emotional condition of the patient prevents the dentist from providing this necessary care in the office.
(12) Payment will be approved for an assessment fee as specified in 441-paragraphs 79.1(16)"o" and"r" to determine if amedical emergency exists.

Medical emergency is defined as a sudden or unforeseen occurrence or combination of circumstances presenting a substantial risk to an individual's health unless immediate medical treatment is given.

The determination of whether a medical emergency exists will be based on the patient's medical condition including presenting symptoms and medical history prior to treatment or evaluation.

(13) Payment for patients in acute hospital beds who are determined by the IME medical services unit to require the skilled nursing care level of care shall be made at an amount equal to the sum of the direct care rate component limit for Medicare-certified hospital-based nursing facilities pursuant to 441-subparagraph 81.6(16)"f"(3) plus the non-direct care rate component limit for Medicare-certified hospital-based nursing facilities pursuant to 441-subparagraph 81.6(16)"f"(3), with the rate component limits being revised July 1, 2001, and every second year thereafter. This rate is effective (a) as of the date of notice by the IME medical services unit that the lower level of care is required or (b) for the days the IME medical services unit determines in an outlier review that the lower level of care was required.
(14) Payment for patients in acute hospital beds who are determined by the IME medical services unit to require nursing facility level of care shall be made at an amount equal to the sum of the direct care rate component limit for Medicaid nursing facilities pursuant to 441-subparagraph 81.6(16)"f"(l) plus the non-direct care rate component limit for Medicaid nursing facilities pursuant to 441-subparagraph 81.6(16)"f" (1), with the rate component limits being revised July 1, 2001, and every second year thereafter. This rate is effective (a) as of the date of notice by the IME medical services unit that the lower level of care is required or (b) for the days the IME medical services unit determines in an outlier review that the lower level of care was required.
(15) Payment for inpatient hospital charges associated with surgical procedures normally done and billed on an outpatient hospital basis is subject to review by the IME medical services acute retrospective review team. Such reviews are based on random claim samples that are pulled on a monthly basis. If the information on a given inpatient claim included in that sample does not appear to support the appropriateness of inpatient level of care, that claim is sent to the IME medical director for further review. If the medical director approves the inpatient level of care, the claim is paid. However, if the medical director determines that the care provided could have been rendered at a lower level of care, the hospital and attending physician are notified accordingly. If the hospital agrees with the finding that a lower level of care was appropriate, the hospital submits a new claim for the lower level of care. If the hospital disagrees with the lower level of care finding, the hospital can submit additional documentation for further review. The hospital or attending physician or both may appeal any final determination by the IME.
(16) Skilled nursing care in "swing beds."
a. Payment will be made for medically necessary skilled nursing care when provided by a hospital participating in the swing-bed program certified by the department of inspections and appeals and approved by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Payment shall be at an amount equal to the sum of the direct care rate component limit for Medicare-certified hospital-based nursing facilities pursuant to 441-subparagraph 81.6(16)"f'(3) and the non-direct care rate component limit for Medicare-certified hospital-based nursing facilities pursuant to 441-subparagraph 81.6(16)"f'(3), with the rate component limits being revised July 1, 2001, and every second year thereafter. Swing-bed placement is only intended to be short-term in nature.
b. Any payment for skilled nursing care provided in a hospital with a certified swing-bed program, for either initial admission or continued stay, will require prior authorization, subject to the following requirements:
(1) The hospital has fewer than 100 beds, excluding beds for newborns and intensive care.
(2) The hospital has an existing certification for a swing-bed program, pursuant to paragraph 78.3(16)"a."
(3) The member is being admitted for nursing facility or skilled level of care (if the member has Medicare and skilled coverage has been exhausted).
(4) As part of the discharge planning process for a member requiring ongoing skilled nursing care, the hospital must:
1. Complete a level of care (LOC) determination describing a member's LOC needs, using Form 470-5156, Swing Bed Certification.
2. Contact skilled nursing facilities within a 30-mile radius of the hospital regarding available beds to meet the member's LOC needs.
3. Certify that no freestanding skilled nursing facility beds are available for the member within a 30-mile radius of the hospital, which will be able to appropriately meet the member's needs and that home-based care for the member is not available or appropriate.
(5) Swing-bed stays beyond 14 days will only be approved when there is no appropriate freestanding nursing facility bed available within a 30-mile radius and home-based care for the member is not available or appropriate, as documented by the hospital seeking the swing-bed admission. For the purpose of these criteria, an "appropriate" nursing facility bed is a bed in a Medicaid-participating freestanding nursing facility that provides the LOC required for the member's medical condition and corresponding LOC needs.
(6) A Medicaid member who has been in a swing bed beyond 14 days must be discharged to an appropriate nursing facility bed within a 30-mile radius of the swing-bed hospital or to appropriate home-based care within 72 hours of an appropriate nursing facility bed becoming available.

Preadmission screening and resident review (PASRR) rules still apply for members being transferred to a nursing facility.

(17) Rescinded IAB 8/9/89, effective 10/1/89.
(18) Preprocedure review by the IME medical services unit is required if hospitals are to be reimbursed for certain frequently performed surgical procedures as set forth under subrule 78.1(19). Preprocedure review is also required for other types of major surgical procedures, such as organ transplants. Criteria are available from the IME medical services unit. (Cross reference 78.28(6))
(19) Rescinded IAB 10/8/97, effective 12/1/97.

This rule is intended to implement Iowa Code section 249A.4.

Notes

Iowa Admin. Code r. 441-78.3
ARC 0065C, IAB 4/4/12, effective 6/1/12; ARC 0194C, IAB 7/11/12, effective 7/1/12; ARC 0354C, IAB 10/3/12, effective 12/1/12; ARC 0844C, IAB 7/24/2013, effective 7/1/2013; ARC 1054C, IAB 10/2/2013, effective 11/6/2013 Amended by IAB January 6, 2016/Volume XXXVIII, Number 14, effective 1/1/2016 Amended by IAB February 12, 2020/Volume XLII, Number 17, effective 3/18/2020

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