(a) Filing of Claim. If a creditor does not timely file a proof of claim under Rule 3002(c) or 3003(c), any entity that is or may be liable with the debtor to that creditor, or who has secured that creditor, may file a proof of the claim within 30 days after the expiration of the time for filing claims prescribed by Rule 3002(c) or Rule 3003(c) whichever is applicable. No distribution shall be made on the claim except on satisfactory proof that the original debt will be diminished by the amount of distribution.
(b) Filing of Acceptance or Rejection; Substitution of Creditor. An entity which has filed a claim pursuant to the first sentence of subdivision (a) of this rule may file an acceptance or rejection of a plan in the name of the creditor, if known, or if unknown, in the entity's own name but if the creditor files a proof of claim within the time permitted by Rule 3003(c) or files a notice prior to confirmation of a plan of the creditor's intention to act in the creditor's own behalf, the creditor shall be substituted for the obligor with respect to that claim.
(As amended Mar. 30, 1987, eff. Aug. 1, 1987; Apr. 30, 1991, eff. Aug. 1, 1991; Apr. 25, 2005, eff. Dec. 1, 2005.)
Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1983
This rule is adapted from former Rules 304 and 10–402. Together with §501(b) of the Code, the rule makes clear that anyone who may be liable on a debt of the debtor, including a surety, guarantor, indorser, or other codebtor, is authorized to file in the name of the creditor of the debtor.
Subdivision (a). Rule 3002(c) provides the time period for filing proofs of claim in chapter 7 and 13 cases; Rule 3003(c) provides the time, when necessary, for filing claims in a chapter 9 or 11 case.
Subdivision (b). This subdivision applies in chapter 9 and 11 cases as distinguished from chapter 7 cases. It permits voting for or against a plan by an obligor who files a claim in place of the creditor.
Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1991 Amendment
The words “with the court” in subdivision (b) are deleted as unnecessary. See Rules 5005(a) and 9001(3).
Committee Notes on Rules—2005 Amendment
The rule is amended to delete the last sentence of subdivision (a). The sentence is unnecessary because if a creditor has filed a timely claim under Rule 3002 or 3003(c), the codebtor cannot file a proof of such claim. The codebtor, consistent with §501(b) of the Code, may file a proof of such claim only after the creditor's time to file has expired. Therefore, the rule no longer permits the creditor to file a superseding claim. The rule leaves to the courts the issue of whether to permit subsequent amendment of the proof of claim.
The amendment conforms the rule to §501(b) by deleting language providing that the codebtor files proof of the claim in the name of the creditor.
Other amendments are stylistic.
Changes Made After Publication and Comment:
(a) The reference on line 2 of Rule 3005 to “Rule 3002 or 3003(c)” was changed to read “Rule 3002(c) or 3003(c)” to make it parallel to the language in Rule 3004.
(b) The phrase “file a proof of the claim” from line 7 of the proposed rule was moved up to line 4 of the proposed amendment immediately after the word “may”. This makes the structure of Rules 3004 and 3005 more consistent.