10 U.S. Code § 852 - Art. 52. Number of votes required

§ 852.
Art. 52. Number of votes required
(a)
(1)
No person may be convicted of an offense for which the death penalty is made mandatory by law, except by the concurrence of all the members of the court-martial present at the time the vote is taken.
(2)
No person may be convicted of any other offense, except as provided in section 845(b) of this title (article 45(b)) or by the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present at the time the vote is taken.
(b)
(1)
No person may be sentenced to suffer death, except by the concurrence of all the members of the court-martial present at the time the vote is taken and for an offense in this chapter expressly made punishable by death.
(2)
No person may be sentenced to life imprisonment or to confinement for more than ten years, except by the concurrence of three-fourths of the members present at the time the vote is taken.
(3)
All other sentences shall be determined by the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present at the time the vote is taken.
(c)
All other questions to be decided by the members of a general or special court-martial shall be determined by a majority vote, but a determination to reconsider a finding of guilty or to reconsider a sentence, with a view toward decreasing it, may be made by any lesser vote which indicates that the reconsideration is not opposed by the number of votes required for that finding or sentence. A tie vote on a challenge disqualifies the member challenged. A tie vote on a motion for a finding of not guilty or on a motion relating to the question of the accused’s sanity is a determination against the accused. A tie vote on any other question is a determination in favor of the accused.
(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 55; Pub. L. 90–632, § 2(22), Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1340; Pub. L. 114–328, div. E, title LVII, § 5235, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2916.)
Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 114–328, Dec. 23, 2016, div. E, title LVII, § 5235, title LXIII, § 5542, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2916, 2967, provided that, effective on the date designated by the President, not later than the first day of the first calendar month beginning two years after Dec. 23, 2016, with implementing regulations prescribed by the President not later than one year after Dec. 23, 2016, and with provisions relating to applicability to various situations, this section is amended to read as follows:

§ 852. Art. 52. Votes required for conviction, sentencing, and other matters

(a) In General.—No person may be convicted of an offense in a general or special court-martial, other than—

(1) after a plea of guilty under section 845(b) of this title (article 45(b));

(2) by a military judge in a court-martial with a military judge alone, under section 816 of this title (article 16); or

(3) in a court-martial with members under section 816 of this title (article 16), by the concurrence of at least three-fourths of the members present when the vote is taken.

(b) Level of Concurrence Required.—

(1) In general.—Except as provided in subsection (a) and in paragraph (2), all matters to be decided by members of a general or special court-martial shall be determined by a majority vote, but a reconsideration of a finding of guilty or reconsideration of a sentence, with a view toward decreasing the sentence, may be made by any lesser vote which indicates that the reconsideration is not opposed by the number of votes required for that finding or sentence.

(2) Sentencing.—A sentence of death requires (A) a unanimous finding of guilty of an offense in this chapter expressly made punishable by death and (B) a unanimous determination by the members that the sentence for that offense shall include death. All other sentences imposed by members shall be determined by the concurrence of at least three-fourths of the members present when the vote is taken.

See 2016 Amendment note below.

Historical and Revision Notes

Revised section

Source (U.S. Code)

Source (Statutes at Large)

852(a)

852(b)

50:627(a).

50:627(b)

May 5, 1950, ch. 169, § 1 (Art. 52), 64 Stat. 125.

852(c)

50:627(c).

In subsections (a) and (b), the word “may” is substituted for the word “shall”.

In subsection (b)(2), the words “for more than” are substituted for the words “in excess of”.

In subsection (c), the word “disqualifies” is substituted for the words “shall disqualify”. The word “is” is substituted for the words “shall be” in the last two sentences.

Amendments

2016—Pub. L. 114–328 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section consisted of subsecs. (a) to (c) relating to number of votes required for conviction of an offense for which the death penalty is mandatory, sentences, and all other questions, respectively.

1968—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 90–632, § 2(22)(A), inserted reference to the exception provided in section 845(b) of this title (article 45(b)).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90–632, § 2(22)(B), provided that a determination to reconsider a finding of guilty or to reconsider a sentence, with a view toward decreasing it, may be made by a vote of less than a majority vote which indicates that the reconsideration is not opposed by the number of votes required for that finding or sentence.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–328 effective on the date designated by the President, not later than the first day of the first calendar month beginning two years after Dec. 23, 2016, with implementing regulations prescribed by the President not later than one year after Dec. 23, 2016, and with provisions relating to applicability to various situations, see section 5542 of Pub. L. 114–328, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–632 effective first day of tenth month following October 1968, see section 4 of Pub. L. 90–632, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


32 CFR - National Defense

32 CFR Part 143 - DOD POLICY ON ORGANIZATIONS THAT SEEK TO REPRESENT OR ORGANIZE MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES IN NEGOTIATION OR COLLECTIVE BARGAINING

 

LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.