Whenever an issuer or custodian approved under section 1721(g) of this title knowingly and materially violates any provisions of subsection (b), the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may impose a civil money penalty on the issuer or the custodian in accordance with the provisions of this section. The penalty shall be in addition to any other available civil remedy or any available criminal penalty and may be imposed whether or not the Secretary imposes other administrative sanctions.
The amount of the penalty, as determined by the Secretary, may not exceed $5,000 for each violation, except that the maximum penalty for all violations by a particular issuer or custodian during any one-year period shall not exceed $1,000,000. Each violation of a provision of subsection (b)(1) shall constitute a separate violation with respect to each pool of mortgages. In the case of a continuing violation, as determined by the Secretary, each day shall constitute a separate violation.
If no hearing is requested within 15 days of receipt of a notice of opportunity for hearing, the imposition of a penalty shall constitute a final and unappealable determination. If the Secretary reviews the determination or order, the Secretary may affirm, modify, or reverse that determination or order. If the Secretary does not review the determination or order within 90 days of the issuance of the determination or order, the determination or order shall be final.
In determining the amount of a penalty under subsection (a), consideration shall be given to such factors as the gravity of the offense, any history of prior offenses (including offenses occurring before December 15, 1989), ability to pay the penalty, injury to the public, benefits received, deterrence of future violations, and such other factors as the Secretary may determine by regulations.
The Secretary’s determination or order imposing a penalty under subsection (a) shall not be subject to review, except as provided in subsection (d).
After exhausting all administrative remedies established by the Secretary under subsection (c)(1), an issuer or a custodian against which the Secretary has imposed a civil money penalty under subsection (a) may obtain a review of the penalty and such ancillary issues as may be addressed in the notice provided under subsection (c)(1)(A) in the appropriate court of appeals of the United States, by filing in such court, within 20 days after the entry of such order or determination, a written petition praying that the Secretary’s order or determination be modified or be set aside in whole or in part.
A court shall not consider any objection that was not raised in the hearing conducted pursuant to subsection (c)(1) unless a demonstration is made of extraordinary circumstances causing the failure to raise the objection. If any party demonstrates to the satisfaction of the court that additional evidence, which was not presented at such hearing, is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to present such evidence at the hearing, the court shall remand the matter to the Secretary for consideration of such additional evidence.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall have the power in any such review to order payment of the penalty imposed by the Secretary.
If any issuer or custodian fails to comply with the Secretary’s determination or order imposing a civil money penalty under subsection (a), after the determination or order is no longer subject to review as provided by subsections (c)(1) and (d), the Secretary may request the Attorney General of the United States to bring an action in an appropriate United States district court to obtain a monetary judgment against the issuer or custodian and such other relief as may be available. The monetary judgment may, in the discretion of the court, include any attorneys fees and other expenses incurred by the United States in connection with the action. In an action under this subsection, the validity and appropriateness of the Secretary’s determination or order imposing the penalty shall not be subject to review.
The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit any civil money penalty which may be, or has been, imposed under this section.
The term “knowingly” means having actual knowledge of or acting with deliberate ignorance of or reckless disregard for the prohibitions under this section.