The Corporation may, as receiver with respect to any System bank, organize a bridge System bank under subsection (h).
Except as provided in subclause (II), notwithstanding any other provision of law, the appointment of the Corporation as receiver for a System institution and the succession of the Corporation, by operation of law, to the rights, titles, powers, and privileges described in subparagraph (A) shall terminate all rights and claims that the stockholders and creditors of the System institution may have, arising as a result of their status as stockholders or creditors, against the assets or charter of the System institution or the Corporation.
In carrying out its responsibilities in the management and disposition of assets from System institutions, as conservator, receiver, or in its corporate capacity, the Corporation may utilize the services of private persons, including real estate and loan portfolio asset management, property management, auction marketing, legal, and brokerage services, if the Corporation determines utilization of such services is practicable, efficient, and cost effective.
The Corporation may, as receiver, determine claims in accordance with the requirements of this subsection and regulations prescribed under paragraph (4).
The Corporation may prescribe regulations regarding the allowance or disallowance of claims by the receiver and providing for administrative determination of claims and review of such determination.
The period described in clause (i) may be extended by a written agreement between the claimant and the Corporation.
The receiver shall allow any claim received on or before the date specified in the notice published under paragraph (3)(B)(i) by the receiver from any claimant which is proved to the satisfaction of the receiver.
Except as provided in clause (ii), claims filed after the date specified in the notice published under paragraph (3)(B)(i) shall be disallowed and such disallowance shall be final.
The receiver may disallow any portion of any claim by a creditor or claim of security, preference, or priority which is not proved to the satisfaction of the receiver.
No court may review the Corporation’s determination pursuant to subparagraph (D) to disallow a claim.
For purposes of any applicable statute of limitations, the filing of a claim with the receiver shall constitute a commencement of an action.
If any claimant fails to file suit on such claim (or continue an action commenced before the appointment of the receiver), before the end of the 60-day period described in subparagraph (A), the claim shall be deemed to be disallowed (other than any portion of such claim which was allowed by the receiver) as of the end of such period, such disallowance shall be final, and the claimant shall have no further rights or remedies with respect to such claim.
If any claimant requests review under this paragraph in lieu of filing or continuing any action under paragraph (6) and the Corporation agrees to such request, the Corporation shall consider the claim after opportunity for a hearing on the record. The final determination of the Corporation with respect to such claim shall be subject to judicial review under chapter 7 of title 5.
If an action described in subparagraph (C) is not filed, or the motion to renew a previously filed suit is not made, before the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date on which such action or motion may be filed in accordance with subparagraph (B), the claim shall be deemed to be disallowed as of the end of such period (other than any portion of such claim which was allowed by the receiver), such disallowance shall be final, and the claimant shall have no further rights or remedies with respect to such claim.
For purposes of any applicable statute of limitations, the filing of a claim with the receiver shall constitute a commencement of an action.
Notwithstanding section 2277a–10(d) of this title, any agreement relating to an extension of credit between a Federal Reserve bank or the United States Treasury and any System institution which was executed before such extension of credit to such System institution shall be treated as having been executed contemporaneously with such extension of credit for purposes of subparagraph (A).
The receiver may, in the receiver’s discretion and to the extent funds are available from the assets of the System institution, pay creditor claims which are allowed by the receiver, approved by the Corporation pursuant to a final determination pursuant to paragraph (7) or (8), or determined by the final judgment of any court of competent jurisdiction in such manner and amounts as are authorized under this chapter.
The receiver may, in the receiver’s sole discretion, pay from the assets of the System institution portions of proved claims at any time, and no liability shall attach to the Corporation (in such Corporation’s corporate capacity or as receiver), by reason of any such payment, for failure to make payments to a claimant whose claim is not proved at the time of any such payment.
The Corporation may prescribe such rules, including definitions of terms, as it deems appropriate to establish a single uniform interest rate for or to make payments of post insolvency interest to creditors holding proven claims against the receivership estates of System institutions following satisfaction by the receiver of the principal amount of all creditor claims.
All claims of each priority described in clauses (i) through (vii) of subparagraph (A) shall be paid in full, or provisions shall be made for that payment, prior to the payment of any claim of a lesser priority.
Following the payment of all claims in accordance with subparagraph (A), the receiver shall distribute the remainder of the assets of the System institution to the owners of stock, participation certificates, and other equities in accordance with the priorities for impairment under the bylaws of the System institution.
Notwithstanding subparagraph (C) or any other provision of this section, eligible borrower stock shall be retired in accordance with section 2162 of this title.
The provisions of subparagraph (A) shall not supersede the law of any State except to the extent such law is inconsistent with the provisions of such subparagraph, and then only to the extent of the inconsistency.
Upon the Corporation’s own motion or upon the request of any person with a claim described in subparagraph (A) or any State which is submitted to the Corporation in accordance with procedures which the Corporation shall prescribe, the Corporation shall determine whether any provision of the law of any State is inconsistent with any provision of subparagraph (A) and the extent of any such inconsistency.
The final determination of the Corporation under clause (ii) shall be subject to judicial review under chapter 7 of title 5.
Any distribution by the Corporation in connection with any claim described in subparagraph (A)(vii) shall be accompanied by the accounting report required under paragraph (15)(B).
In the case of any tort claim described in clause (ii) for which the statute of limitation applicable under State law with respect to such claim has expired not more than 5 years before the appointment of the Corporation as conservator or receiver, the Corporation may bring an action as conservator or receiver on such claim without regard to the expiration of the statute of limitation applicable under State law.
A tort claim referred to in clause (i) is a claim arising from fraud, intentional misconduct resulting in unjust enrichment, or intentional misconduct resulting in substantial loss to the System institution.
Except as provided in clause (ii), after the end of the 6-year period beginning on the date the Corporation is appointed as receiver of a System institution, the Corporation may destroy any records of such System institution which the Corporation, in the Corporation’s discretion, determines to be unnecessary unless directed not to do so by a court of competent jurisdiction or governmental agency, or prohibited by law.
Notwithstanding clause (i), the Corporation may destroy records of a System institution which are at least 10 years old as of the date on which the Corporation is appointed as the receiver of such System institution in accordance with clause (i) at any time after such appointment is final, without regard to the 6-year period of limitation contained in clause (i).
The Corporation, as conservator or receiver for any System institution, may avoid a transfer of any interest of a System institution-affiliated party, or any person who the Corporation determines is a debtor of the System institution, in property, or any obligation incurred by such party or person, that was made within 5 years of the date on which the Corporation was appointed conservator or receiver if such party or person voluntarily or involuntarily made such transfer or incurred such liability with the intent to hinder, delay, or defraud the System institution, the Farm Credit Administration, or the Corporation.
The rights under this paragraph of the Corporation shall be superior to any rights of a trustee or any other party (other than any party which is a Federal agency) under title 11.
Subject to paragraph (18), any court of competent jurisdiction may, at the request of the Corporation (in the Corporation’s capacity as conservator or receiver for any System institution or in the Corporation’s corporate capacity with respect to any asset acquired or liability assumed by the Corporation under section 2277a–10 of this title), issue an order in accordance with Rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, including an order placing the assets of any person designated by the Corporation under the control of the court and appointing a trustee to hold such assets.
Rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure shall apply with respect to any proceeding under paragraph (17) without regard to the requirement of such rule that the applicant show that the injury, loss, or damage is irreparable and immediate.
If, in the case of any proceeding in a State court, the court determines that rules of civil procedure available under the laws of such State provide substantially similar protections to such party’s right to due process as Rule 65 (as modified with respect to such proceeding by subparagraph (A)), the relief sought by the Corporation pursuant to paragraph (17) may be requested under the laws of such State.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, any final and unappealable judgment for monetary damages entered against a receiver or conservator for a System institution for the breach of an agreement executed or approved by such receiver or conservator after the date of its appointment shall be paid as an administrative expense of the receiver or conservator. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to limit the power of a receiver or conservator to exercise any rights under contract or law, including terminating, breaching, canceling, or otherwise discontinuing such agreement.
If the conservator or receiver disaffirms or repudiates a lease under which the System institution was the lessee, the conservator or receiver shall not be liable for any damages (other than damages determined pursuant to subparagraph (B)) for the disaffirmance or repudiation of such lease.
No provision of this paragraph shall be construed as limiting the right of the conservator or receiver to assign the contract described in subparagraph (A) and sell the property subject to the contract and this paragraph.
If an assignment and sale described in clause (i) is consummated, the Corporation, acting as conservator or receiver, shall have no further liability under the applicable contract described in subparagraph (A) or with respect to the real property which was the subject of such contract.
The acceptance by any conservator or receiver of services referred to in subparagraph (B) in connection with a contract described in such subparagraph shall not affect the right of the conservator or receiver, to repudiate such contract under this section at any time after such performance.
The term “qualified financial contract” means any securities contract, commodity contract, forward contract, repurchase agreement, swap agreement, and any similar agreement that the Corporation determines by regulation, resolution, or order to be a qualified financial contract for purposes of this paragraph.
For purposes of subclause (I)(aa), the term “qualified foreign government security” means a security that is a direct obligation of, or that is fully guaranteed by, the central government of a member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (as determined by regulation or order adopted by the appropriate Federal banking authority).
The term “transfer” means every mode, direct or indirect, absolute or conditional, voluntary or involuntary, of disposing of or parting with property or with an interest in property, including retention of title as a security interest and foreclosure of the equity of redemption of a System institution.
Subsection (b)(12) shall apply in the case of any judicial action or proceeding brought against any receiver referred to in subparagraph (A), or the System institution for which such receiver was appointed, by any party to a contract or agreement described in subparagraph (B)(i) with such System institution.
Notwithstanding paragraph (11) or any other Federal or State law relating to the avoidance of preferential or fraudulent transfers, the Corporation, whether acting as such or as conservator or receiver of a System institution, may not avoid any transfer of money or other property in connection with any qualified financial contract with a System institution.
Clause (i) shall not apply to any transfer of money or other property in connection with any qualified financial contract with a System institution if the Corporation determines that the transferee had actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud such System institution, the creditors of such System institution, or any conservator or receiver appointed for such System institution.
No provision of law shall be construed as limiting the right or power of the Corporation, or authorizing any court or agency to limit or delay, in any manner, the right or power of the Corporation to transfer any qualified financial contract in accordance with paragraphs (9) and (10) or to disaffirm or repudiate any such contract in accordance with paragraph (1).
The Corporation, in consultation with the Farm Credit Administration, may prescribe regulations requiring more detailed recordkeeping by any System institution with respect to qualified financial contracts (including market valuations), only if such System institution is subject to subclause (I), (III), or (IV) of section 2277a–10b(a)(1)(A)(ii) of this title.
In transferring any qualified financial contracts and related claims and property under subparagraph (B)(i), the conservator or receiver for the System institution shall not make such transfer to a foreign bank, financial institution organized under the laws of a foreign country, or a branch or agency of a foreign bank or financial institution unless, under the law applicable to such bank, financial institution, branch or agency, to the qualified financial contracts, and to any netting contract, any security agreement or arrangement or other credit enhancement related to one or more qualified financial contracts, the contractual rights of the parties to such qualified financial contracts, netting contracts, security agreements or arrangements, or other credit enhancements are enforceable substantially to the same extent as permitted under this section.
In the event that a conservator or receiver transfers any qualified financial contract and related claims, property, and credit enhancements pursuant to subparagraph (B)(i) and such contract is cleared by or subject to the rules of a clearing organization, the clearing organization shall not be required to accept the transferee as a member by virtue of the transfer.
In this paragraph, the term “business day” means any day other than any Saturday, Sunday, or any day on which either the New York Stock Exchange or the Federal Reserve Bank of New York is closed.
A person who is a party to a qualified financial contract with a System institution may not exercise any right that such person has to terminate, liquidate, or net such contract under paragraph (8)(E) of this subsection, solely by reason of or incidental to the appointment of a conservator for the System institution (or the insolvency or financial condition of the System institution for which the conservator has been appointed).
For purposes of this paragraph, the Corporation as receiver or conservator of a System institution shall be deemed to have notified a person who is a party to a qualified financial contract with such System institution if the Corporation has taken steps reasonably calculated to provide notice to such person by the time specified in subparagraph (B).
No provision of this subsection shall be construed as permitting the avoidance of any legally enforceable or perfected security interest in any of the assets of any System institution except where such an interest is taken in contemplation of the System institution’s insolvency or with the intent to hinder, delay, or defraud the System institution or the creditors of such System institution.
The conservator or receiver may enforce any contract, other than a director’s or officer’s liability insurance contract or a System institution bond, entered into by the System institution notwithstanding any provision of the contract providing for termination, default, acceleration, or exercise of rights upon, or solely by reason of, insolvency or the appointment of or the exercise of rights or powers by a conservator or receiver.
No provision of this paragraph may be construed as impairing or affecting any right of the conservator or receiver to enforce or recover under a director’s or officer’s liability insurance contract or institution bond under other applicable law.
Except as otherwise provided by this section, no person may exercise any right or power to terminate, accelerate, or declare a default under any contract to which the System institution is a party, or to obtain possession of or exercise control over any property of the System institution or affect any contractual rights of the System institution, without the consent of the conservator or receiver, as appropriate, during the 45-day period beginning on the date of the appointment of the conservator, or during the 90-day period beginning on the date of the appointment of the receiver, as applicable.
No provision of this subparagraph shall apply to a director or officer liability insurance contract or an institution bond, to the rights of parties to certain qualified financial contracts pursuant to paragraph (8), or shall be construed as permitting the conservator or receiver to fail to comply with otherwise enforceable provisions of such contract.
Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal law or the law of any State and regardless of the method which the Corporation determines to utilize with respect to a System institution in default or in danger of default, including transactions authorized under subsection (h) and section 2277a–10(a) of this title, this subsection shall govern the rights of the creditors of such System institution.
The maximum liability of the Corporation, acting as receiver or in any other capacity, to any person having a claim against the receiver or the System institution for which such receiver is appointed shall equal the amount such claimant would have received if the Corporation had liquidated the assets and liabilities of such System institution without exercising the Corporation’s authority under subsection (h) or section 2277a–10(a) of this title.
The Corporation may, in its discretion and in the interests of minimizing its losses, use its own resources to make additional payments or credit additional amounts to or with respect to or for the account of any claimant or category of claimants. Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal or State law, or the constitution of any State, the Corporation shall not be obligated, as a result of having made any such payment or credited any such amount to or with respect to or for the account of any claimant or category of claimants, to make payments to any other claimant or category of claimants.
Nothing in paragraph (1) impairs or affects any right of the Corporation under any other applicable law.
In any proceeding related to any claim against a System institution’s director, officer, employee, agent, attorney, accountant, appraiser, or any other party employed by or providing services to a System institution, recoverable damages determined to result from the improvident or otherwise improper use or investment of any System institution’s assets shall include principal losses and appropriate interest.
When 1 or more System banks are in default, or when the Corporation anticipates that 1 or more System banks may become in default, the Corporation may, in its discretion, organize, and the Farm Credit Administration may, in its discretion, charter, 1 or more System banks, with the powers and attributes of System banks, subject to the provisions of this subsection, to be referred to as “bridge System banks”.
Upon the organization of a bridge System bank, and thereafter, as the Corporation may, in its discretion, determine to be necessary or advisable, the Corporation may make available to the bridge System bank, upon such terms and conditions and in such form and amounts as the Corporation may in its discretion determine, funds for the operation of the bridge System bank in lieu of capital.
The Corporation may, in its discretion, provide assistance under section 2277a–10(a) of this title to facilitate any merger or consolidation of a bridge System bank in the same manner and to the same extent as such assistance may be provided to a qualifying insured System bank (as defined in section 2277a–10(a)(2)(B) of this title) or to facilitate a bridge System bank’s acquisition of any assets or the assumption of any liabilities of a System bank in default or in danger of default.
Subject to paragraphs (10) and (11), the status of a bridge System bank as such shall terminate at the end of the 2-year period following the date it was granted a charter. The Farm Credit Administration Board may, in its discretion, extend the status of the bridge System bank as such for 3 additional 1-year periods.
A bridge System bank that participates in a merger or consolidation as provided in paragraph (9)(A) shall be for all purposes a System institution, with all the rights, powers, and privileges thereof, and such merger or consolidation shall be conducted in accordance with, and shall have the effect provided in, the provisions of applicable law.
Following the sale of a majority or all of the capital stock of the bridge System bank as provided in paragraph (9)(B), the Farm Credit Administration Board may amend the charter of the bridge System bank to reflect the termination of the status of the bridge System bank as such, whereupon the System bank shall remain a System bank, with all of the rights, powers, and privileges thereof, subject to all laws and regulations applicable thereto.
Following the assumption of all or substantially all of the liabilities of the bridge System bank, or the sale of all or substantially all of the assets of the bridge System bank, as provided in paragraph (9)(C), at the election of the Corporation, the bridge System bank may retain its status as such for the period provided in paragraph (8).
Following the consummation of a transaction described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of paragraph (9), the charter of the resulting System institution shall be amended by the Farm Credit Administration to reflect the termination of bridge System bank status, if appropriate.
The Farm Credit Administration Board shall appoint the Corporation as receiver for a bridge System bank upon determining to dissolve the bridge System bank. The Corporation as such receiver shall wind up the affairs of the bridge System bank in conformity with the provisions of law relating to the liquidation of closed System banks. With respect to any such bridge System bank, the Corporation as such receiver shall have all the rights, powers, and privileges and shall perform the duties related to the exercise of such rights, powers, or privileges granted by law to a receiver of any insured System bank and, notwithstanding any other provision of law in the exercise of such rights, powers, and privileges, the Corporation shall not be subject to the direction or supervision of any State agency or other Federal agency.
For purposes of this subsection, the term “default” means a failure to comply with the terms of a loan or other obligation to such an extent that the property securing the obligation is foreclosed upon.
The notice of appeal of any order, whether interlocutory or final, entered in any case brought by the Corporation against a System institution’s director, officer, employee, agent, attorney, accountant, or appraiser or any other person employed by or providing services to a System institution shall be filed not later than 30 days after the date of entry of the order. The hearing of the appeal shall be held not later than 120 days after the date of the notice of appeal. The appeal shall be decided not later than 180 days after the date of the notice of appeal.
A court of the United States shall expedite the consideration of any case brought by the Corporation against a System institution’s director, officer, employee, agent, attorney, accountant, or appraiser or any other person employed by or providing services to a System institution. As far as practicable the court shall give such case priority on its docket.
The court may modify the schedule and limitations stated in paragraphs (1) and (2) in a particular case, based on a specific finding that the ends of justice that would be served by making such a modification would outweigh the best interest of the public in having the case resolved expeditiously.
The Corporation as conservator or receiver of a System institution shall not be required to furnish bond and may appoint an agent or agents to assist in its duties as such conservator or receiver. All fees, compensation, and expenses of liquidation and administration shall be fixed by the Corporation and may be paid by it out of funds coming into its possession as such conservator or receiver.