12 U.S. Code § 4617 - Authority over critically undercapitalized regulated entities
Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal or State law, the Director may appoint the Agency as conservator or receiver for a regulated entity in the manner provided under paragraph (2) or (4). All references to the conservator or receiver under this section are references to the Agency acting as conservator or receiver.
Any willful violation of a cease and desist order that has become final.
The regulated entity is likely to be unable to pay its obligations or meet the demands of its creditors in the normal course of business.
The regulated entity, by resolution of its board of directors or its shareholders or members, consents to the appointment.
If the Agency is appointed conservator or receiver under this section, the regulated entity may, within 30 days of such appointment, bring an action in the United States district court for the judicial district in which the home office of such regulated entity is located, or in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, for an order requiring the Agency to remove itself as conservator or receiver.
Upon the filing of an action under subparagraph (A), the court shall, upon the merits, dismiss such action or direct the Agency to remove itself as such conservator or receiver.
In any case in which the Agency is acting as receiver, the Agency shall place the regulated entity in liquidation and proceed to realize upon the assets of the regulated entity in such manner as the Agency deems appropriate, including through the sale of assets, the transfer of assets to a limited-life regulated entity established under subsection (i), or the exercise of any other rights or privileges granted to the Agency under this paragraph.
The Agency, as conservator or receiver, shall, to the extent of proceeds realized from the performance of contracts or sale of the assets of a regulated entity, pay all valid obligations of the regulated entity that are due and payable at the time of the appointment of the Agency as conservator or receiver, in accordance with the prescriptions and limitations of this section.
The Agency may, as conservator or receiver, and for purposes of carrying out any power, authority, or duty with respect to a regulated entity (including determining any claim against the regulated entity and determining and realizing upon any asset of any person in the course of collecting money due the regulated entity), exercise any power established under section 4588 of this title.
The provisions of section 4588 of this title shall apply with respect to the exercise of any power under this subparagraph, in the same manner as such provisions apply under that section.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the appointment of the Agency as receiver for a regulated entity pursuant to paragraph (2) or (4) of subsection (a) and its succession, by operation of law, to the rights, titles, powers, and privileges described in subsection (b)(2)(A) shall terminate all rights and claims that the stockholders and creditors of the regulated entity may have against the assets or charter of the regulated entity or the Agency arising as a result of their status as stockholders or creditors, except for their right to payment, resolution, or other satisfaction of their claims, as permitted under subsections (b)(9), (c), and (e).
The Agency may, as receiver, determine claims in accordance with the requirements of this subsection and any regulations prescribed under paragraph (4).
Subject to subsection (c), the Director may prescribe regulations regarding the allowance or disallowance of claims by the receiver and providing for administrative determination of claims and review of such determination.
Before the end of the 180-day period beginning on the date on which any claim against a regulated entity is filed with the Agency as receiver, the Agency shall determine whether to allow or disallow the claim and shall notify the claimant of any determination with respect to such claim.
The period described in clause (i) may be extended by a written agreement between the claimant and the Agency.
The receiver shall allow any claim received on or before the date specified in the notice published under paragraph (3)(B)(i) by the receiver from any claimant which is proved to the satisfaction of the receiver.
Claims filed after the date specified in the notice published under paragraph (3)(B)(i), or the date specified under paragraph (3)(C), shall be disallowed and such disallowance shall be final.
The receiver may disallow any portion of any claim by a creditor or claim of security, preference, or priority which is not proved to the satisfaction of the receiver.
No court may review the determination of the Agency under subparagraph (D) to disallow a claim.
For purposes of any applicable statute of limitations, the filing of a claim with the receiver shall constitute a commencement of an action.
A claim shall be deemed to be disallowed (other than any portion of such claim which was allowed by the receiver), and such disallowance shall be final, and the claimant shall have no further rights or remedies with respect to such claim, if the claimant fails, before the end of the 60-day period described under subparagraph (A), to file suit on such claim (or continue an action commenced before the appointment of the receiver).
The Agency shall establish such alternative dispute resolution processes as may be appropriate for the resolution of claims filed under paragraph (5)(A)(i).
In establishing alternative dispute resolution processes, the Agency shall strive for procedures which are expeditious, fair, independent, and low cost.
The Agency shall seek to develop incentives for claimants to participate in the alternative dispute resolution process.
If an action described under subparagraph (C) is not filed, or the motion to renew a previously filed suit is not made, before the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date on which such action or motion may be filed under subparagraph (B), the claim shall be deemed to be disallowed as of the end of such period (other than any portion of such claim which was allowed by the receiver), such disallowance shall be final, and the claimant shall have no further rights or remedies with respect to such claim.
For purposes of any applicable statute of limitations, the filing of a claim with the receiver shall constitute a commencement of an action.
The receiver may, in the sole discretion of the receiver, pay from the assets of the regulated entity dividends on proved claims at any time, and no liability shall attach to the Agency by reason of any such payment, for failure to pay dividends to a claimant whose claim is not proved at the time of any such payment.
The Director may prescribe such rules, including definitions of terms, as the Director deems appropriate to establish a single uniform interest rate for, or to make payments of post-insolvency interest to creditors holding proven claims against the receivership estates of the regulated entity, following satisfaction by the receiver of the principal amount of all creditor claims.
No attachment or execution may issue by any court upon assets in the possession of the receiver, or upon the charter, of a regulated entity for which the Agency has been appointed receiver.
In the case of any tort claim described under clause (ii) for which the statute of limitations applicable under State law with respect to such claim has expired not more than 5 years before the appointment of the Agency as conservator or receiver, the Agency may bring an action as conservator or receiver on such claim without regard to the expiration of the statute of limitations applicable under State law.
A tort claim referred to under clause (i) is a claim arising from fraud, intentional misconduct resulting in unjust enrichment, or intentional misconduct resulting in substantial loss to the regulated entity.
With respect to each conservatorship or receivership, the Agency shall make an annual accounting or report available to the Board, the Comptroller General of the United States, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate, and the Committee on Financial Services of the House of Representatives.
After the end of the 6-year period beginning on the date on which the conservatorship or receivership is terminated by the Director, the Agency may destroy any records of such regulated entity which the Agency, in the discretion of the Agency, determines to be unnecessary, unless directed not to do so by a court of competent jurisdiction or governmental agency, or prohibited by law.
The Agency, as conservator or receiver, may avoid a transfer of any interest of an entity-affiliated party, or any person determined by the conservator or receiver to be a debtor of the regulated entity, in property, or any obligation incurred by such party or person, that was made within 5 years of the date on which the Agency was appointed conservator or receiver, if such party or person voluntarily or involuntarily made such transfer or incurred such liability with the intent to hinder, delay, or defraud the regulated entity, the Agency, the conservator, or receiver.
Subject to paragraph (17), any court of competent jurisdiction may, at the request of the conservator or receiver, issue an order in accordance with rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, including an order placing the assets of any person designated by the conservator or receiver under the control of the court, and appointing a trustee to hold such assets.
Rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure shall apply with respect to any proceeding under paragraph (16) without regard to the requirement of such rule that the applicant show that the injury, loss, or damage is irreparable and immediate.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, any final and unappealable judgment for monetary damages entered against the conservator or receiver for the breach of an agreement executed or approved in writing by the conservator or receiver after the date of its appointment, shall be paid as an administrative expense of the conservator or receiver.
Any mortgage, pool of mortgages, or interest in a pool of mortgages held in trust, custodial, or agency capacity by a regulated entity for the benefit of any person other than the regulated entity shall not be available to satisfy the claims of creditors generally, except that nothing in this clause shall be construed to expand or otherwise affect the authority of any regulated entity.
Any mortgage, pool of mortgages, or interest in a pool of mortgages described in clause (i) shall be held by the conservator or receiver appointed under this section for the beneficial owners of such mortgage, pool of mortgages, or interest in accordance with the terms of the agreement creating such trust, custodial, or other agency arrangement.
The conservator or receiver shall determine whether or not to exercise the rights of repudiation under this subsection within a reasonable period following such appointment.
If the conservator or receiver disaffirms or repudiates a lease under which the regulated entity was the lessee, the conservator or receiver shall not be liable for any damages (other than damages determined under subparagraph (B)) for the disaffirmance or repudiation of such lease.
No provision of this paragraph shall be construed as limiting the right of the conservator or receiver to assign the contract described under subparagraph (A), and sell the property subject to the contract and the provisions of this paragraph.
If an assignment and sale described under clause (i) is consummated, the conservator or receiver shall have no further liability under the contract described under subparagraph (A), or with respect to the real property which was the subject of such contract.
The acceptance by the conservator or receiver of services referred to under subparagraph (B) in connection with a contract described in such subparagraph shall not affect the right of the conservator or receiver to repudiate such contract under this section at any time after such performance.
Subsection (b)(10) shall apply in the case of any judicial action or proceeding brought against any receiver referred to under subparagraph (A), or the regulated entity for which such receiver was appointed, by any party to a contract or agreement described under subparagraph (A)(i) with such regulated entity.
Notwithstanding paragraph (11), or any other provision of Federal or State law relating to the avoidance of preferential or fraudulent transfers, the Agency, whether acting as such or as conservator or receiver of a regulated entity, may not avoid any transfer of money or other property in connection with any qualified financial contract with a regulated entity.
Clause (i) shall not apply to any transfer of money or other property in connection with any qualified financial contract with a regulated entity if the Agency determines that the transferee had actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud such regulated entity, the creditors of such regulated entity, or any conservator or receiver appointed for such regulated entity.
The term “qualified financial contract” means any securities contract, commodity contract, forward contract, repurchase agreement, swap agreement, and any similar agreement that the Agency determines by regulation, resolution, or order to be a qualified financial contract for purposes of this paragraph.
Any master agreement for any contract or agreement described in any preceding clause of this subparagraph (or any master agreement for such master agreement or agreements), together with all supplements to such master agreement, shall be treated as a single agreement and a single qualified financial contract. If a master agreement contains provisions relating to agreements or transactions that are not themselves qualified financial contracts, the master agreement shall be deemed to be a qualified financial contract only with respect to those transactions that are themselves qualified financial contracts.
The term “transfer” means every mode, direct or indirect, absolute or conditional, voluntary or involuntary, of disposing of or parting with property or with an interest in property, including retention of title as a security interest and foreclosure of the equity of redemption of the regulated entity.
No provision of law shall be construed as limiting the right or power of the Agency, or authorizing any court or agency to limit or delay in any manner, the right or power of the Agency to transfer any qualified financial contract in accordance with paragraphs (9) and (10), or to disaffirm or repudiate any such contract in accordance with subsection (d)(1).
For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “walkaway clause” means a provision in a qualified financial contract that, after calculation of a value of a party’s position or an amount due to or from 1 of the parties in accordance with its terms upon termination, liquidation, or acceleration of the qualified financial contract, either does not create a payment obligation of a party or extinguishes a payment obligation of a party in whole or in part solely because of the status of such party as a nondefaulting party.
A person who is a party to a qualified financial contract with a regulated entity may not exercise any right that such person has to terminate, liquidate, or net such contract under paragraph (8)(E) of this subsection or under section 4403 or 4404 of this title, solely by reason of or incidental to the appointment of a conservator for the regulated entity (or the insolvency or financial condition of the regulated entity for which the conservator has been appointed).
For purposes of this paragraph, the conservator or receiver of a regulated entity shall be deemed to have notified a person who is a party to a qualified financial contract with such regulated entity, if the conservator or receiver has taken steps reasonably calculated to provide notice to such person by the time specified in subparagraph (A).
For purposes of this paragraph, the term “business day” means any day other than any Saturday, Sunday, or any day on which either the New York Stock Exchange or the Federal Reserve Bank of New York is closed.
No provision of this subsection shall be construed as permitting the avoidance of any legally enforceable or perfected security interest in any of the assets of any regulated entity, except where such an interest is taken in contemplation of the insolvency of the regulated entity, or with the intent to hinder, delay, or defraud the regulated entity or the creditors of such regulated entity.
Notwithstanding any provision of a contract providing for termination, default, acceleration, or exercise of rights upon, or solely by reason of, insolvency or the appointment of, or the exercise of rights or powers by, a conservator or receiver, the conservator or receiver may enforce any contract, other than a contract for liability insurance for a director or officer, or a contract or a regulated entity bond, entered into by the regulated entity.
The meanings of terms used in this subsection are applicable for purposes of this subsection only, and shall not be construed or applied so as to challenge or affect the characterization, definition, or treatment of any similar terms under any other statute, regulation, or rule, including the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the Legal Certainty for Bank Products Act of 2000 [7 U.S.C. 27 to 27f], the securities laws (as that term is defined in section 78c(a)(47) of title 15), and the Commodity Exchange Act [7 U.S.C. 1 et seq.].
Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal law or the law of any State, and regardless of the method which the Agency determines to utilize with respect to a regulated entity in default or in danger of default, including transactions authorized under subsection (i), this subsection shall govern the rights of the creditors of such regulated entity.
The maximum liability of the Agency, acting as receiver or in any other capacity, to any person having a claim against the receiver or the regulated entity for which such receiver is appointed shall be not more than the amount that such claimant would have received if the Agency had liquidated the assets and liabilities of the regulated entity without exercising the authority of the Agency under subsection (i).
Paragraph (1) applies in any civil action for gross negligence, including any similar conduct or conduct that demonstrates a greater disregard of a duty of care than gross negligence, including intentional tortious conduct, as such terms are defined and determined under applicable State law.
In any proceeding related to any claim against a director, officer, employee, agent, attorney, accountant, appraiser, or any other party employed by or providing services to a regulated entity, recoverable damages determined to result from the improvident or otherwise improper use or investment of any assets of the regulated entity shall include principal losses and appropriate interest.
A limited-life regulated entity shall be treated as a regulated entity in default at such times and for such purposes as the Agency may, in its discretion, determine.
Upon its establishment, a limited-life regulated entity shall be under the management of a board of directors consisting of not fewer than 5 nor more than 10 members appointed by the Agency.
If the Director determines that such action is advisable, the Agency may cause capital stock or other securities of a limited-life regulated entity established with respect to an enterprise to be issued and offered for sale, in such amounts and on such terms and conditions as the Director may determine, in the discretion of the Director.
Funds of a limited-life regulated entity shall be kept on hand in cash, invested in obligations of the United States or obligations guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States, or deposited with the Agency, or any Federal reserve bank.
Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal or State law, a limited-life regulated entity, its franchise, property, and income shall be exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed by the United States, by any territory, dependency, or possession thereof, or by any State, county, municipality, or local taxing authority.
This subparagraph applies only with respect to a limited-life regulated entity that is established with respect to an enterprise.
At any time after the establishment of a limited-life regulated entity, the Agency, as receiver, may transfer any assets and liabilities of the regulated entity in default, or in danger of default, as the Agency may, in its discretion, determine to be appropriate in accordance with and subject to the restrictions of paragraph (1).
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the aggregate amount of liabilities of a regulated entity that are transferred to, or assumed by, a limited-life regulated entity may not exceed the aggregate amount of assets of the regulated entity that are transferred to, or purchased by, the limited-life regulated entity.
Any judicial action to which a limited-life regulated entity becomes a party by virtue of its acquisition of any assets or assumption of any liabilities of a regulated entity in default shall be stayed from further proceedings for a period of not longer than 45 days, at the request of the limited-life regulated entity. Such period may be modified upon the consent of all parties.
A limited-life regulated entity is not an agency, establishment, or instrumentality of the United States.
A limited-life regulated entity may obtain unsecured credit and issue unsecured debt.
The reversal or modification on appeal of an authorization under this subsection to obtain credit or issue debt, or of a grant under this section of a priority or a lien, does not affect the validity of any debt so issued, or any priority or lien so granted, to an entity that extended such credit in good faith, whether or not such entity knew of the pendency of the appeal, unless such authorization and the issuance of such debt, or the granting of such priority or lien, were stayed pending appeal.
The Agency, including its franchise, its capital, reserves, and surplus, and its income, shall be exempt from all taxation imposed by any State, county, municipality, or local taxing authority, except that any real property of the Agency shall be subject to State, territorial, county, municipal, or local taxation to the same extent according to its value as other real property is taxed, except that, notwithstanding the failure of any person to challenge an assessment under State law of the value of such property, and the tax thereon, shall be determined as of the period for which such tax is imposed.
The Agency shall not be liable for any amounts in the nature of penalties or fines, including those arising from the failure of any person to pay any real property, personal property, probate, or recording tax or any recording or filing fees when due.
 See References in Text note below.
 So in original. A second closing parenthesis probably should precede the period.
 So in original. No cl. (ii) has been enacted.
This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(4)(D) and (d)(8)(A), was in the original “this title”, meaning title XIII of Pub. L. 102–550, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3941, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of title XIII to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4501 of this title and Tables.
Sections 4402 through 4407 of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(19)(A), was in the original “sections 402 through 407 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (12 U.S.C. 4402 through 4407)”, and was translated as reading “sections 402 through 407A of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991”, meaning sections 402 to 407A of Pub. L. 102–242, which are classified to sections 4402 to 4407 of this title, to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the renumbering of section 407 of the Act as section 407A by Pub. L. 109–8, title IX, § 906(d)(1), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 169.
The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(14), is Pub. L. 106–102, Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1338. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1999 Amendment note set out under section 1811 of this title and Tables.
The Legal Certainty for Bank Products Act of 2000, referred to in subsec. (d)(14), is title IV of H.R. 5660, as enacted by Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(5), Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–457, which is classified to sections 27 to 27f of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2000 Amendment note set out under section 1 of Title 7 and Tables.
The Commodity Exchange Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(14), is act Sept. 21, 1922, ch. 369, 42 Stat. 998, which is classified generally to chapter 1 (§ 1 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1 of Title 7 and Tables.
The Federal National Mortgage Association Charter Act, referred to in subsec. (i)(2)(A)(i)(I), is title III of act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1252, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§ 1716 et seq.) of chapter 13 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1716 of this title and Tables.
This Act, referred to in subsec. (i)(2)(A)(i)(II), (ii)(II), is Pub. L. 102–550, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3672, known as the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1992 Amendment note set out under section 5301 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and Tables.
The FederalHome Loan Mortgage Corporation Charter Act, referred to in subsec. (i)(2)(A)(ii)(I), probably means the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation Act, title III of Pub. L. 91–351, July 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 451, which is classified generally to chapter 11A (§ 1451 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title and Statement of Purpose note set out under section 1451 of this title and Tables.
2008—Pub. L. 110–289 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to appointment of conservators for critically undercapitalized enterprises.
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