Whenever any person knowingly and materially violates any of the provisions of this chapter or any rule, regulation, or order issued under this chapter, the Director may impose a civil money penalty on such person in accordance with the provisions of this section. The penalty shall be in addition to any other available civil remedy or any available criminal penalty, and may be imposed whether or not the Director imposes other administrative sanctions.
The amount of the penalty, as determined by the Director, may not exceed $1,000 for each violation, except that the maximum penalty for all violations by a particular person during any 1-year period shall not exceed $1,000,000. Each violation of this chapter, or any rule, regulation, or order issued under this chapter, shall constitute a separate violation with respect to each sale or lease or offer to sell or lease. In the case of a continuing violation, as determined by the Director, each day shall constitute a separate violation.
If no hearing is requested within 15 days of receipt of the notice of opportunity for hearing, the imposition of the penalty shall constitute a final and unappealable determination. If the Director reviews the determination or order, the Director may affirm, modify, or reverse that determination or order. If the Director does not review the determination or order within 90 days of the issuance of the determination or order, the determination or order shall be final.
In determining the amount of a penalty under subsection (a), consideration shall be given to such factors as the gravity of the offense, any history of prior offenses (including offenses occurring before December 15, 1989), ability to pay the penalty, injury to the public, benefits received, deterrence of future violations, and such other factors as the Director may determine in regulations to be appropriate.
If any person fails to comply with the determination or order of the Director imposing a civil money penalty under subsection (a), after the determination or order is no longer subject to review as provided by subsections (b) and (c), the Director may request the Attorney General of the United States to bring an action in any appropriate United States district court to obtain a monetary judgment against the person and such other relief as may be available. The monetary judgment may, in the discretion of the court, include any attorneys fees and other expenses incurred by the United States in connection with the action. In an action under this subsection, the validity and appropriateness of the Secretary’s 1 determination or order imposing the penalty shall not be subject to review.
The Director may compromise, modify, or remit any civil money penalty which may be, or has been, imposed under this section.
The term “knowingly” means having actual knowledge of or acting with deliberate ignorance of or reckless disregard for the prohibitions under this section.