15 U.S. Code § 2617 - Preemption

§ 2617.
Preemption
(a) In general
(1) Establishment or enforcementExcept as otherwise provided in subsections (c), (d), (e), (f), and (g), and subject to paragraph (2), no State or political subdivision of a State may establish or continue to enforce any of the following:
(A) Development of informationA statute or administrative action to require the development of information about a chemical substance or category of chemical substances that is reasonably likely to produce the same information required under section 2603, 2604, or 2605 of this title in—
(i)
a rule promulgated by the Administrator;
(ii)
a consent agreement entered into by the Administrator; or
(iii)
an order issued by the Administrator.
(B) Chemical substances found not to present an unreasonable risk or restrictedA statute, criminal penalty, or administrative action to prohibit or otherwise restrict the manufacture, processing, or distribution in commerce or use of a chemical substance—
(i)
for which the determination described in section 2605(i)(1) of this title is made, consistent with the scope of the risk evaluation under section 2605(b)(4)(D) [1] of this title; or
(ii)
for which a final rule is promulgated under section 2605(a) of this title, after the effective date of the rule issued under section 2605(a) of this title for the chemical substance, consistent with the scope of the risk evaluation under section 2605(b)(4)(D) 
1
of this title.
(C) Significant new use

A statute or administrative action requiring the notification of a use of a chemical substance that the Administrator has specified as a significant new use and for which the Administrator has required notification pursuant to a rule promulgated under section 2604 of this title.

(2) Effective date of preemption

Under this subsection, Federal preemption of statutes and administrative actions applicable to specific chemical substances shall not occur until the effective date of the applicable action described in paragraph (1) taken by the Administrator.

(b) New statutes, criminal penalties, or administrative actions creating prohibitions or other restrictions
(1) In general

Except as provided in subsections (c), (d), (e), (f), and (g), beginning on the date on which the Administrator defines the scope of a risk evaluation for a chemical substance under section 2605(b)(4)(D) of this title and ending on the date on which the deadline established pursuant to section 2605(b)(4)(G) of this title for completion of the risk evaluation expires, or on the date on which the Administrator publishes the risk evaluation under section 2605(b)(4)(C) of this title, whichever is earlier, no State or political subdivision of a State may establish a statute, criminal penalty, or administrative action prohibiting or otherwise restricting the manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, or use of such chemical substance that is a high-priority substance designated under section 2605(b)(1)(B)(i) of this title.

(2) Effect of subsection

This subsection does not restrict the authority of a State or political subdivision of a State to continue to enforce any statute enacted, criminal penalty assessed, or administrative action taken, prior to the date on which the Administrator defines and publishes the scope of a risk evaluation under section 2605(b)(4)(D) of this title.

(c) Scope of preemptionFederal preemption under subsections (a) and (b) of statutes, criminal penalties, and administrative actions applicable to specific chemical substances shall apply only to—
(1)
with respect to subsection (a)(1)(A), the chemical substances or category of chemical substances subject to a rule, order, or consent agreement under section 2603, 2604, or 2605 of this title;
(2)
with respect to subsection (b), the hazards, exposures, risks, and uses or conditions of use of such chemical substances included in the scope of the risk evaluation pursuant to section 2605(b)(4)(D) of this title;
(3)
with respect to subsection (a)(1)(B), the hazards, exposures, risks, and uses or conditions of use of such chemical substances included in any final action the Administrator takes pursuant to section 2605(a) or 2605(i)(1) of this title; or
(4)
with respect to subsection (a)(1)(C), the uses of such chemical substances that the Administrator has specified as significant new uses and for which the Administrator has required notification pursuant to a rule promulgated under section 2604 of this title.
(d) Exceptions
(1) No preemption of statutes and administrative actions
(A) In generalNothing in this chapter, nor any amendment made by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, nor any rule, standard of performance, risk evaluation, or scientific assessment implemented pursuant to this chapter, shall affect the right of a State or a political subdivision of a State to adopt or enforce any rule, standard of performance, risk evaluation, scientific assessment, or any other protection for public health or the environment that—
(i)
is adopted or authorized under the authority of any other Federal law or adopted to satisfy or obtain authorization or approval under any other Federal law;
(ii)
implements a reporting, monitoring, or other information obligation for the chemical substance not otherwise required by the Administrator under this chapter or required under any other Federal law;
(iii) is adopted pursuant to authority under a law of the State or political subdivision of the State related to water quality, air quality, or waste treatment or disposal, except to the extent that the action—
(I)
imposes a restriction on the manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, or use of a chemical substance; and
(II)
(aa)
addresses the same hazards and exposures, with respect to the same conditions of use as are included in the scope of the risk evaluation published pursuant to section 2605(b)(4)(D) of this title, but is inconsistent with the action of the Administrator; or
(bb)
would cause a violation of the applicable action by the Administrator under section 2604 or 2605 of this title; or
(iv)
subject to subparagraph (B), is identical to a requirement prescribed by the Administrator.
(B) Identical requirements
(i) In general

The penalties and other sanctions applicable under a law of a State or political subdivision of a State in the event of noncompliance with the identical requirement shall be no more stringent than the penalties and other sanctions available to the Administrator under section 2615 of this title.

(ii) PenaltiesIn the case of an identical requirement—
(I)
a State or political subdivision of a State may not assess a penalty for a specific violation for which the Administrator has assessed an adequate penalty under section 2615 of this title; and
(II)
if a State or political subdivision of a State has assessed a penalty for a specific violation, the Administrator may not assess a penalty for that violation in an amount that would cause the total of the penalties assessed for the violation by the State or political subdivision of a State and the Administrator combined to exceed the maximum amount that may be assessed for that violation by the Administrator under section 2615 of this title.
(2) Applicability to certain rules or orders
(A) Prior rules and orders

Nothing in this section shall be construed as modifying the preemptive effect under this section, as in effect on the day before the effective date of the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, of any rule or order promulgated or issued under this chapter prior to that effective date.

(B) Certain chemical substances and mixtures

With respect to a chemical substance or mixture for which any rule or order was promulgated or issued under section 2605 of this title prior to the effective date of the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act with respect to manufacturing, processing, distribution in commerce, use, or disposal of the chemical substance or mixture, nothing in this section shall be construed as modifying the preemptive effect of this section as in effect prior to the enactment of the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act of any rule or order that is promulgated or issued with respect to such chemical substance or mixture under section 2605 of this title after that effective date, unless the latter rule or order is with respect to a chemical substance or mixture containing a chemical substance and follows a designation of that chemical substance as a high-priority substance under section 2605(b)(1)(B)(i) of this title, the identification of that chemical substance under section 2605(b)(2)(A) of this title, or the selection of that chemical substance for risk evaluation under section 2605(b)(4)(E)(iv)(II) of this title.

(e) Preservation of certain laws
(1) In generalNothing in this chapter, subject to subsection (g) of this section, shall—
(A)
be construed to preempt or otherwise affect the authority of a State or political subdivision of a State to continue to enforce any action taken or requirement imposed or requirement enacted relating to a specific chemical substance before April 22, 2016, under the authority of a law of the State or political subdivision of the State that prohibits or otherwise restricts manufacturing, processing, distribution in commerce, use, or disposal of a chemical substance; or
(B)
be construed to preempt or otherwise affect any action taken pursuant to a State law that was in effect on August 31, 2003.
(2) Effect of subsection

This subsection does not affect, modify, or alter the relationship between Federal law and laws of a State or political subdivision of a State pursuant to any other Federal law.

(f) Waivers
(1) Discretionary exemptionsUpon application of a State or political subdivision of a State, the Administrator may, by rule, exempt from subsection (a), under such conditions as may be prescribed in the rule, a statute, criminal penalty, or administrative action of that State or political subdivision of the State that relates to the effects of exposure to a chemical substance under the conditions of use if the Administrator determines that—
(A)
compelling conditions warrant granting the waiver to protect health or the environment;
(B)
compliance with the proposed requirement of the State or political subdivision of the State would not unduly burden interstate commerce in the manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, or use of a chemical substance;
(C)
compliance with the proposed requirement of the State or political subdivision of the State would not cause a violation of any applicable Federal law, rule, or order; and
(D) in the judgment of the Administrator, the proposed requirement of the State or political subdivision of the State is designed to address a risk of a chemical substance, under the conditions of use, that was identified—
(i)
consistent with the best available science;
(ii)
using supporting studies conducted in accordance with sound and objective scientific practices; and
(iii)
based on the weight of the scientific evidence.
(2) Required exemptionsUpon application of a State or political subdivision of a State, the Administrator shall exempt from subsection (b) a statute or administrative action of a State or political subdivision of a State that relates to the effects of exposure to a chemical substance under the conditions of use if the Administrator determines that—
(A)
(i)
compliance with the proposed requirement of the State or political subdivision of the State would not unduly burden interstate commerce in the manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, or use of a chemical substance;
(ii)
compliance with the proposed requirement of the State or political subdivision of the State would not cause a violation of any applicable Federal law, rule, or order; and
(iii)
the State or political subdivision of the State has a concern about the chemical substance or use of the chemical substance based in peer-reviewed science; or
(B)
no later than the date that is 18 months after the date on which the Administrator has initiated the prioritization process for a chemical substance under the rule promulgated pursuant to section 2605(b)(1)(A) of this title, or the date on which the Administrator publishes the scope of the risk evaluation for a chemical substance under section 2605(b)(4)(D) of this title, whichever is sooner, the State or political subdivision of the State has enacted a statute or proposed or finalized an administrative action intended to prohibit or otherwise restrict the manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, or use of the chemical substance.
(3) Determination of a waiver requestThe duty of the Administrator to grant or deny a waiver application shall be nondelegable and shall be exercised—
(A)
not later than 180 days after the date on which an application under paragraph (1) is submitted; and
(B)
not later than 110 days after the date on which an application under paragraph (2) is submitted.
(4) Failure to make a determination

If the Administrator fails to make a determination under paragraph (3)(B) during the 110-day period beginning on the date on which an application under paragraph (2) is submitted, the statute or administrative action of the State or political subdivision of the State that was the subject of the application shall not be considered to be an existing statute or administrative action for purposes of subsection (b) by reason of the failure of the Administrator to make a determination.

(5) Notice and comment

Except in the case of an application approved under paragraph (9), the application of a State or political subdivision of a State under this subsection shall be subject to public notice and comment.

(6) Final agency actionThe decision of the Administrator on the application of a State or political subdivision of a State shall be—
(A)
considered to be a final agency action; and
(B)
subject to judicial review.
(7) Duration of waivers

A waiver granted under paragraph (2) or approved under paragraph (9) shall remain in effect until such time as the Administrator publishes the risk evaluation under section 2605(b) of this title.

(8) Judicial review of waivers

Not later than 60 days after the date on which the Administrator makes a determination on an application of a State or political subdivision of a State under paragraph (1) or (2), any person may file a petition for judicial review in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, which shall have exclusive jurisdiction over the determination.

(9) Approval
(A) Automatic approval

If the Administrator fails to meet the deadline established under paragraph (3)(B), the application of a State or political subdivision of a State under paragraph (2) shall be automatically approved, effective on the date that is 10 days after the deadline.

(B) Requirements

Notwithstanding paragraph (6), approval of a waiver application under subparagraph (A) for failure to meet the deadline under paragraph (3)(B) shall not be considered final agency action or be subject to judicial review or public notice and comment.

(g) Savings
(1) No preemption of common law or statutory causes of action for civil relief or criminal conduct
(A) In general

Nothing in this chapter, nor any amendment made by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, nor any standard, rule, requirement, standard of performance, risk evaluation, or scientific assessment implemented pursuant to this chapter, shall be construed to preempt, displace, or supplant any State or Federal common law rights or any State or Federal statute creating a remedy for civil relief, including those for civil damage, or a penalty for a criminal conduct.

(B) Clarification of no preemption

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, nothing in this chapter, nor any amendments made by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, shall preempt or preclude any cause of action for personal injury, wrongful death, property damage, or other injury based on negligence, strict liability, products liability, failure to warn, or any other legal theory of liability under any State law, maritime law, or Federal common law or statutory theory.

(2) No effect on private remedies
(A) In general

Nothing in this chapter, nor any amendments made by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, nor any rules, regulations, requirements, risk evaluations, scientific assessments, or orders issued pursuant to this chapter shall be interpreted as, in either the plaintiff’s or defendant’s favor, dispositive in any civil action.

(B) Authority of courts

This chapter does not affect the authority of any court to make a determination in an adjudicatory proceeding under applicable State or Federal law with respect to the admission into evidence or any other use of this chapter or rules, regulations, requirements, standards of performance, risk evaluations, scientific assessments, or orders issued pursuant to this chapter.

(Pub. L. 94–469, title I, § 18, Oct. 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 2038; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 99–519, § 3(c)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2989; amended Pub. L. 114–182, title I, § 13, June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 492.)


[1]  See References in Text note below.
References in Text

Section 2605(b)(4)(D) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(B)(i), (ii), was in the original “section (6)(b)(4)(D)”, and was translated as meaning section 6(b)(4)(D) of title I of Pub. L. 94–469 to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

The Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, referred to in subsecs. (d)(1)(A), (2), and (g)(1), (2)(A), is Pub. L. 114–182, June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 492. The effective date of the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act probably means the date of the enactment of the Act, which was approved June 22, 2016. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2016 Amendment note set out under section 2601 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–182, § 13(1), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) related to effect of chapter on State law.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–182, § 13(2), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) related to exemption from required testing of chemical substances or mixtures.

Subsecs. (c) to (g). Pub. L. 114–182, § 13(3), added subsecs. (c) to (g).

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


19 CFR - Customs Duties

19 CFR Part 12 - SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE

40 CFR - Protection of Environment

40 CFR Part 3 - CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING

40 CFR Part 9 - OMB APPROVALS UNDER THE PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT

40 CFR Part 30 - UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

40 CFR Part 31 - UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

40 CFR Part 34 - NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING

40 CFR Part 35 - STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE

40 CFR Part 451 - CONCENTRATED AQUATIC ANIMAL PRODUCTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY

 

LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.