The Congress finds the following:
Revolutionary advancements in computing and communications technology have interconnected government, commercial, scientific, and educational infrastructures—including critical infrastructures for electric power, natural gas and petroleum production and distribution, telecommunications, transportation, water supply, banking and finance, and emergency and government services—in a vast, interdependent physical and electronic network.
Exponential increases in interconnectivity have facilitated enhanced communications, economic growth, and the delivery of services critical to the public welfare, but have also increased the consequences of temporary or prolonged failure.
A Department of Defense Joint Task Force concluded after a 1997 United States information warfare exercise that the results “clearly demonstrated our lack of preparation for a coordinated cyber and physical attack on our critical military and civilian infrastructure”.
(4) Computer security technology and systems implementation lack—
adequate coordination across Federal and State government agencies and among government, academia, and industry; and
(5) Accordingly, Federal investment in computer and network security research and development must be significantly increased to—