16 U.S. Code § 1453 - Definitions
The Submerged Lands Act, referred to in par. (1), is act May 22, 1953, ch. 65, 67 Stat. 29, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapters I and II (§§ 1301 et seq., 1311 et seq.) of chapter 29 of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1301 of Title 43 and Tables.
Act of March 2, 1917, referred to in par. (1), is act Mar. 2, 1917, ch. 145, 39 Stat. 951, as amended, known as the Puerto Rican Federal Relations Act and also as the Jones Act, which is classified principally to chapter 4 (§ 731 et seq.) of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions. Section 8 of the Act is classified to section 749 of Title 48. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 731 of Title 48 and Tables.
The Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America, referred to in par. (1), is contained in section 1 of Pub. L. 94–241, set out as a note under section 1801 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.
Act of March 24, 1976, referred to in par. (1), is Pub. L. 94–241, Mar. 24, 1976, 90 Stat. 263, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§ 1801 et seq.) of chapter 17 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.
Section 1 of the Act of November 20, 1963, referred to in par. (1), is section 1 of Pub. L. 88–183, Nov. 20, 1963, 77 Stat. 338, which was classified to section 1701 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions, and was repealed by Pub. L. 93–435, § 5, Oct. 5, 1974, 88 Stat. 1212. See section 1705 of Title 48.
Section 1502 of title 33, referred to in par. (5)(iii), was subsequently amended, and section 1502(10) no longer defines the term “deepwater port”. However, such term is defined elsewhere in that section.
Par. (2). Pub. L. 102–587, § 2205(b)(6), substituted “The term” for “the term”.
Par. (9). Pub. L. 102–587, § 2205(b)(7), amended par. (9) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (9) read as follows: “The term ‘Fund’ means the Coastal Energy Impact Fund established by section 1456a(h) of this title.”
1990—Par. (1). Pub. L. 101–508, § 6204(a)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 102–587, § 2205(b)(3), inserted “, and to control those geographical areas which are likely to be affected by or vulnerable to sea level rise” before period at end of third sentence.
Pub. L. 101–508, § 6204(a)(2), as amended by Pub. L. 102–587, § 2205(b)(3), substituted “the outer limit of State title and ownership under the Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.), the Act of March 2, 1917 (48 U.S.C. 749), the Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America, as approved by the Act of March 24, 1976 (48 U.S.C. 1681 note), or section 1 of the Act of November 20, 1963 (48 U.S.C. 1705, as applicable.” for “the United States territorial sea.” at end of second sentence.
Par. (18). Pub. L. 101–508, § 6204(c), substituted “a use, activity, or project conducted in or on waters within the coastal zone” for “activities which are conducted in or on the water; but does not mean or include the establishment of any water quality standard or criteria or the regulation of the discharge or runoff of water pollutants except the standards, criteria, or regulations which are incorporated in any program as required by the provisions of section 1456(f) of this title”.
1980—Pars. (2) to (4). Pub. L. 96–464, § 4(1)–(3), added par. (2), redesignated former pars. (2) and (3) as (3) and (4), and in par. (4), as so redesignated, substituted “Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and American Samoa” for “Guam and American Samoa”. Former par. (4) redesignated (5).
Pars. (5) to (16). Pub. L. 96–464, § 4(1), redesignated pars. (4) to (15) as (5) to (16). Former par. (16) redesignated (17).
Pars. (17), (18). Pub. L. 96–464, § 4(1), (4), (5), added par. (17) and redesignated former par. (17) as (18).
1976—Par. (1). Pub. L. 94–370, § 3(1), redesignated par. (a) as (1), substituted “The term ‘coastal’ ” for “ ‘Coastal’ ”, and inserted “islands,” after “and includes”.
Par. (2). Pub. L. 94–370, § 3(2), redesignated par. (b) as (2), substituted “The term ‘coastal’ ” for “ ‘Coastal’ ”, “(A)” for “(1)”, and “(B)” for “(2)”.
Par. (3). Pub. L. 94–370, § 3(3), redesignated par. (c) as (3) and substituted “The term ‘coastal’ ” for “ ‘Coastal’.”
Pars. (4), (5). Pub. L. 94–370, § 3(4), added pars. (4) and (5).
Par. (7). Pub. L. 94–370, § 3(6), redesignated par. (e) as (7) and substituted “The term ‘estuarine’ ” for “ ‘Estuarine’ ” and “estuary and any island, transitional area, and upland in, adjoining, or adjacent to such estuary, and which constitutes” for “estuary, adjoining transitional areas, and adjacent uplands, constituting”.
Par. (8). Pub. L. 94–370, § 3(7), added par. (8).
Par. (10). Pub. L. 94–370, § 3(7), added par. (10).
Par. (11). Pub. L. 94–370, § 3(8), redesignated par. (g) as (11) and substituted “The term ‘management program’ ” for “ ‘Management program’.”
Pars. (12) to (14). Pub. L. 94–370, § 3(9), added pars. (12) to (14).
For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.
Proc. No. 5030, Mar. 10, 1983, 48 F.R. 10605, provided:
WHEREAS the Government of the United States of America desires to facilitate the wise development and use of the oceans consistent with international law;
WHEREAS international law recognizes that, in a zone beyond its territory and adjacent to its territorial sea, known as the Exclusive Economic Zone, a coastal State may assert certain sovereign rights over natural resources and related jurisdiction; and
WHEREAS the establishment of an Exclusive Economic Zone by the United States will advance the development of ocean resources and promote the protection of the marine environment, while not affecting other lawful uses of the zone, including the freedoms of navigation and overflight, by other States;
NOW, THEREFORE, I, RONALD REAGAN, by the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim the sovereign rights and jurisdiction of the United States of America and confirm also the rights and freedoms of all States within an Exclusive Economic Zone, as described herein.
The Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States is a zone contiguous to the territorial sea, including zones contiguous to the territorial sea of the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (to the extent consistent with the Covenant and the United Nations Trusteeship Agreement), and United States overseas territories and possessions. The Exclusive Economic Zone extends to a distance 200 nautical miles from the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. In cases where the maritime boundary with a neighboring State remains to be determined, the boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone shall be determined by the United States and other State concerned in accordance with equitable principles.
Within the Exclusive Economic Zone, the United States has, to the extent permitted by international law, (a) sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring, exploiting, conserving and managing natural resources, both living and non-living, of the seabed and subsoil and the superjacent waters and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents and winds; and (b) jurisdiction with regard to the establishment and use of artificial islands, and installations and structures having economic purposes, and the protection and preservation of the marine environment.
This Proclamation does not change existing United States policies concerning the continental shelf, marine mammals and fisheries, including highly migratory species of tuna which are not subject to United States jurisdiction and require international agreements for effective management.
The United States will exercise these sovereign rights and jurisdiction in accordance with the rules of international law.
Without prejudice to the sovereign rights and jurisdiction of the United States, the Exclusive Economic Zone remains an area beyond the territory and territorial sea of the United States in which all States enjoy the high seas freedoms of navigation, overflight, the laying of submarine cables and pipelines, and other internationally lawful uses of the sea.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this tenth day of March, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and eighty-three, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and seventh.
Proc. No. 10071, Sept. 9, 2020, 85 F.R. 59165, provided:
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 (Convention) generally reflects customary international law. Section 3 of Part XIII of the Convention provides that coastal states, in the exercise of their jurisdiction, have the right to regulate, authorize, and conduct marine scientific research in their Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and on their continental shelf. Marine scientific research in the EEZ or on the continental shelf shall be conducted with the consent of the coastal state.
In Proclamation 5030 of March 10, 1983 (Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States of America) [set out above], the President announced the establishment of the EEZ of the United States. The Proclamation asserts the sovereign rights and jurisdiction of the United States in its EEZ and confirms the rights and freedoms of all states, as provided under international law. In an accompanying Presidential Statement of March 10, 1983 (United States Oceans Policy), the President acknowledged that international law allows coastal states to exercise jurisdiction over marine scientific research in their respective EEZs, but stated that the United States had elected not to do so to the fullest extent permitted under international law, in an effort to encourage such research. Presidential Decision Directive-36 of April 5, 1995 (United States Policy on Protecting the Ocean Environment), emphasizes that the policy of the United States is to protect and monitor the ocean and coastal environment and conserve living marine resources, recognizing that doing so, in an open and collaborative manner, supports our economic and national security interests.
In Executive Order 13840 of June 19, 2018 (Ocean Policy to Advance the Economic, Security, and Environmental Interests of the United States) [33 U.S.C. 857–19 note], I reaffirmed that the United States will continue to promote lawful use of the ocean by agencies, including the Armed Forces, and that the United States will continue to exercise its rights and jurisdiction and perform duties in accordance with applicable international law, including customary international law. Further, the United States will use the best available ocean-related science and knowledge, in partnership with the science and technology communities, to inform decisions and enhance entrepreneurial opportunities. In the Presidential Memorandum of November 19, 2019 (Ocean Mapping of the United States Exclusive Economic Zone and the Shoreline and Nearshore of Alaska) [33 U.S.C. 3501 note], I affirmed the importance of understanding our ocean systems and natural resources to our security, economic, and environmental interests.
Likewise, the exercise of jurisdiction by the United States over marine scientific research in its EEZ and on its continental shelf will result in greater access to data collected during such research and will increase maritime domain awareness, thereby reducing potential exposure to security, economic, and environmental risks.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, DONALD J. TRUMP, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim the following:
Section 1. Policy. The United States will exercise its right to regulate, authorize, and conduct marine scientific research, with a specific requirement to authorize, in advance, all instances of foreign marine scientific research, in the United States EEZ and on its continental shelf to the extent permitted under international law.
Sec. 2. Implementation. The Secretary of State (Secretary) shall have lead responsibility for implementing this proclamation, in consultation with relevant executive departments and agencies (agencies) and with the Ocean Policy Committee established in Executive Order 13840 (Ocean Policy Committee).
Sec. 3. Intelligence. The Intelligence Community of the Federal Government shall support the implementation of this proclamation, as appropriate.
Sec. 4. Information Sharing. To facilitate the process for reviewing applications for marine scientific research, agencies not part of the Intelligence Community shall share information related to marine scientific research with the Department of State, to the maximum extent authorized by law.
Sec. 5. Termination. This proclamation shall remain in effect until terminated by the President. At any time, but not less frequently than every 2 years from the date of this proclamation [Sept. 9, 2020], the Secretary may recommend that the President modify or terminate this proclamation. Any such recommendation by the Secretary shall be coordinated with the National Security Council staff and the Ocean Policy Committee.
Sec. 6. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:
(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or
(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.
(b) This proclamation shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.
(c) This proclamation is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this ninth day of September, in the year of our Lord two thousand twenty, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and forty-fifth.