18 U.S. Code § 1201. Kidnapping
Reference to persons aiding, abetting or causing was omitted as unnecessary because such persons are made principals by section 22 of this title.
Words “upon conviction” were omitted as surplusage, because punishment cannot be imposed until a conviction is secured.
Direction as to confinement “in the penitentiary” was omitted because of section 4082 of this title which commits all prisoners to the custody of the Attorney General. (See reviser’s note under section 1 of this title.)
The phrase “for any term of years or for life” was substituted for the words “for such term of years as the court in its discretion shall determine” which appeared in said section 408a of Title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed. This change was made in order to remove all doubt as to whether “term of years” includes life imprisonment.
Minor changes were made in phraseology.
2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–248, § 213(1), substituted “, or the offender travels in interstate or foreign commerce or uses the mail or any means, facility, or instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce in committing or in furtherance of the commission of the offense” for “if the person was alive when the transportation began”.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–248, § 213(2), substituted “in interstate” for “to interstate”.
2003—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 108–21 substituted “shall include imprisonment for not less than 20 years.” for “shall be subject to paragraph (2) of this subsection.” in concluding provisions of par. (1) and struck out par. (2) which read as follows:
“(2) Guidelines.—The United States Sentencing Commission is directed to amend the existing guidelines for the offense of ‘kidnapping, abduction, or unlawful restraint,’ by including the following additional specific offense characteristics: If the victim was intentionally maltreated (i.e., denied either food or medical care) to a life-threatening degree, increase by 4 levels; if the victim was sexually exploited (i.e., abused, used involuntarily for pornographic purposes) increase by 3 levels; if the victim was placed in the care or custody of another person who does not have a legal right to such care or custody of the child either in exchange for money or other consideration, increase by 3 levels; if the defendant allowed the child to be subjected to any of the conduct specified in this section by another person, then increase by 2 levels.”
1998—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–314, § 702(a), inserted “, regardless of whether the person was alive when transported across a State boundary if the person was alive when the transportation began” before semicolon at end.
Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 105–314, § 702(b), substituted “described” for “designated”.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–314, § 702(c), inserted at end “Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the fact that the presumption under this section has not yet taken effect does not preclude a Federal investigation of a possible violation of this section before the 24-hour period has ended.”
1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–132 substituted “If the victim of an offense under subsection (a) is an internationally protected person outside the United States, the United States may exercise jurisdiction over the offense if (1) the victim is a representative, officer, employee, or agent of the United States, (2) an offender is a national of the United States, or (3) an offender is afterwards found in the United States.” for “If the victim of an offense under subsection (a) is an internationally protected person, the United States may exercise jurisdiction over the offense if the alleged offender is present within the United States, irrespective of the place where the offense was committed or the nationality of the victim or the alleged offender.” and inserted at end “For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘national of the United States’ has the meaning prescribed in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(22)).”
1994—Pub. L. 103–322, § 330021(1), which directed the amendment of this title “by striking ‘kidnaping’ each place it appears and inserting ‘kidnapping’ ”, was executed by substituting “Kidnapping” for “Kidnaping” as section catchline, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.
Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322, § 60003(a)(6), in concluding provisions, inserted “and, if the death of any person results, shall be punished by death or life imprisonment” after “or for life”.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322, § 330021(2), substituted “kidnapped” for “kidnaped”.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–322, § 320903(b), substituted “(a)” for “(a)(4) or (a)(5)”.
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–322, § 320924, added subsec. (h).
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–647, § 401, added subsec. (g).
1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–646, § 36, substituted “when—” for “when:” in introductory text, substituted “the person” for “The person” and “official duties” for “his official duties” in par. (5), and aligned the margin of par. (5) with the margins of pars. (1) to (4).
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–646, § 37(b), inserted “or (a)(5)” after “subsection (a)(4)”.
1984—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 98–473 added par. (5).
1976—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 94–467, § 4(a), substituted provision which includes acts committed against an internationally protected person and an official guest as defined in section 1116(b) of this title for provision which included acts committed against an official guest as defined in section 1116(c) of this title.
Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 94–467, § 4(b), added subsecs. (d) to (f).
1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–539 substituted “Kidnaping” for “Transportation” in section catchline and, in subsec. (a), extended the jurisdictional base to include acts committed within the special maritime, territorial, and aircraft jurisdiction of the United States, and to include acts committed against foreign officials and official guests, and struck out provisions relating to death penalty.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–539 inserted reference to subsec. (a)(1).
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–539 substituted “by imprisonment for any term of years or for life” for “as provided in subsection (a)”.
1956—Subsec. (b). Act Aug. 6, 1956, substituted “twenty-four hours” for “seven days”.