The use, or even the threatened use, of MANPADS, atomic or radiological weapons, or the variola virus
, against the United States,
its allies, or its people, poses a grave risk to the security,
foreign policy, economy, and environment of the United States.
Accordingly, the United States
has a compelling national security
interest in preventing unlawful activities that lead to the proliferation or spread of such items, including their unauthorized production, construction, acquisition, transfer, possession, import, or export. All of these activities markedly increase the chances that such items will be obtained by terrorist organizations
or rogue states,
which could use them to attack the United States,
its allies, or United States
nationals or corporations.