18 U.S. Code § 2280a. Violence against maritime navigation and maritime transport involving weapons of mass destruction

(a) Offenses.—
(1)In general.—Subject to the exceptions in subsection (c), a person who unlawfully and intentionally—
(A) when the purpose of the act, by its nature or context, is to intimidate a population, or to compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act—
(i)
uses against or on a ship or discharges from a ship any explosive or radioactive material, biological, chemical, or nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device in a manner that causes or is likely to cause death to any person or serious injury or damage;
(ii)
discharges from a ship oil, liquefied natural gas, or another hazardous or noxious substance that is not covered by clause (i), in such quantity or concentration that causes or is likely to cause death to any person or serious injury or damage; or
(iii)
uses a ship in a manner that causes death to any person or serious injury or damage;
(B) transports on board a ship—
(i)
any explosive or radioactive material, knowing that it is intended to be used to cause, or in a threat to cause, death to any person or serious injury or damage for the purpose of intimidating a population, or compelling a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act;
(ii)
any biological, chemical, or nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device, knowing it to be a biological, chemical, or nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device;
(iii) any source material, special fissionable material, or equipment or material especially designed or prepared for the processing, use, or production of special fissionable material, knowing that it is intended to be used in a nuclear explosive activity or in any other nuclear activity not under safeguards pursuant to an International Atomic Energy Agency comprehensive safeguards agreement, except where—
(I)
such item is transported to or from the territory of, or otherwise under the control of, a Non-Proliferation Treaty State Party; and
(II)
the resulting transfer or receipt (including internal to a country) is not contrary to the obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty of the Non-Proliferation Treaty State Party from which, to the territory of which, or otherwise under the control of which such item is transferred;
(iv) any equipment, materials, or software or related technology that significantly contributes to the design or manufacture of a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device, with the intention that it will be used for such purpose, except where—
(I)
the country to the territory of which or under the control of which such item is transferred is a Nuclear Weapon State Party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty; and
(II)
the resulting transfer or receipt (including internal to a country) is not contrary to the obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty of a Non-Proliferation Treaty State Party from which, to the territory of which, or otherwise under the control of which such item is transferred;
(v) any equipment, materials, or software or related technology that significantly contributes to the delivery of a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device, with the intention that it will be used for such purpose, except where—
(I)
such item is transported to or from the territory of, or otherwise under the control of, a Non-Proliferation Treaty State Party; and
(II)
such item is intended for the delivery system of a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device of a Nuclear Weapon State Party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty; or
(vi)
any equipment, materials, or software or related technology that significantly contributes to the design, manufacture, or delivery of a biological or chemical weapon, with the intention that it will be used for such purpose;
(C)
transports another person on board a ship knowing that the person has committed an act that constitutes an offense under section 2280 or subparagraph (A), (B), (D), or (E) of this section [1] or an offense set forth in an applicable treaty, as specified in section 2280(d)(1), and intending to assist that person to evade criminal prosecution;
(D)
injures or kills any person in connection with the commission or the attempted commission of any of the offenses set forth in subparagraphs (A) through (C), or subsection (a)(2), to the extent that the subsection (a)(2) offense pertains to subparagraph (A); or
(E)
attempts to do any act prohibited under subparagraph (A), (B) or (D), or conspires to do any act prohibited by subparagraphs (A) through (E) or subsection (a)(2),
shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both; and if the death of any person results from conduct prohibited by this paragraph, shall be imprisoned for any term of years or for life.
(2)Threats.—
A person who threatens, with apparent determination and will to carry the threat into execution, to do any act prohibited under paragraph (1)(A) shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both.
(b)Jurisdiction.—There is jurisdiction over the activity prohibited in subsection (a)—
(1) in the case of a covered ship, if—
(A) such activity is committed—
(i)
against or on board a vessel of the United States or a vessel subject to the jurisdiction of the United States (as defined in section 70502 of title 46) at the time the prohibited activity is committed;
(ii)
in the United States, including the territorial seas; or
(iii)
by a national of the United States, by a United States corporation or legal entity, or by a stateless person whose habitual residence is in the United States;
(B)
during the commission of such activity, a national of the United States is seized, threatened, injured, or killed; or
(C)
the offender is later found in the United States after such activity is committed;
(2)
in the case of a ship navigating or scheduled to navigate solely within the territorial sea or internal waters of a country other than the United States, if the offender is later found in the United States after such activity is committed; or
(3)
in the case of any vessel, if such activity is committed in an attempt to compel the United States to do or abstain from doing any act.
(c)Exceptions.—This section shall not apply to—
(1)
the activities of armed forces during an armed conflict, as those terms are understood under the law of war, which are governed by that law; or
(2)
activities undertaken by military forces of a state in the exercise of their official duties.
(d)
(1)Civil Forfeiture.—
Any real or personal property used or intended to be used to commit or to facilitate the commission of a violation of this section, the gross proceeds of such violation, and any real or personal property traceable to such property or proceeds, shall be subject to forfeiture.
(2)Applicable Procedures.—
Seizures and forfeitures under this section shall be governed by the provisions of chapter 46 of title 18, United States Code, relating to civil forfeitures, except that such duties as are imposed upon the Secretary of the Treasury under the customs laws described in section 981(d) shall be performed by such officers, agents, and other persons as may be designated for that purpose by the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Attorney General, or the Secretary of Defense.
(Added Pub. L. 114–23, title VIII, § 802(a), June 2, 2015, 129 Stat. 304.)
Definitions

For definitions of terms used in this section, see section 2280(d) of this title.



[1]  So in original. Probably should be “paragraph”.