18 U.S. Code § 3663. Order of restitution
The Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(4), is title II of Pub. L. 91–513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§ 801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables.
2008—Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 110–326 added par. (6).
2005—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–59 inserted “5124,” before “46312,”.
2000—Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 106–310 inserted “which may be” after “fine”.
1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–132, § 205(a)(1)(A)–(E), substituted “(a)(1)(A) The court” for “(a)(1) The court”, inserted “, section 401, 408(a), 409, 416, 420, or 422(a) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 841, 848(a), 849, 856, 861, 863) (but in no case shall a participant in an offense under such sections be considered a victim of such offense under this section),” before “or section 46312,”, “other than an offense described in section 3663A(c),” after “title 49”, and “, or if the victim is deceased, to the victim’s estate” before period at end, and added subpar. (B).
Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–294, § 601(r)(1), inserted at end “The court may also order, if agreed to by the parties in a plea agreement, restitution to persons other than the victim of the offense.”
Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–132, § 205(a)(1)(F), as amended by Pub. L. 104–294, § 605(l), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “For the purposes of restitution, a victim of an offense that involves as an element a scheme, a conspiracy, or a pattern of criminal activity means any person directly harmed by the defendant’s criminal conduct in the course of the scheme, conspiracy, or pattern.”
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–132, § 205(a)(2), (3), added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: “If the court decides to order restitution under this section, the court shall, if the victim is deceased, order that the restitution be made to the victim’s estate.”
Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 104–294, § 601(r)(2), inserted “or chapter 96” after “under chapter 46”.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–132, § 205(a)(2), (3), added subsec. (d) and struck out former subsec. (d) which read as follows: “To the extent that the court determines that the complication and prolongation of the sentencing process resulting from the fashioning of an order of restitution under this section outweighs the need to provide restitution to any victims, the court may decline to make such an order.”
Subsecs. (e) to (i). Pub. L. 104–132, § 205(a)(2), struck out subsecs. (e) to (i), relating to provisions for restitution to persons who had compensated victims for their loss as well as offsets for restitution received by victims against amounts later recovered as compensatory damages, court orders that defendant make restitution in specified time period or in specified installments, payment of restitution as condition of probation or of supervised release, enforcement of restitution orders by United States or by victim, and supervision, termination, or restoration of eligibility for Federal benefits of persons delinquent in making restitution, respectively.
1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted “section 46312, 46502, or 46504 of title 49” for “under subsection (h), (i), (j), or (n) of section 902 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 U.S.C. 1472)”.
Subsec. (b)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 103–322, § 40504(2)–(4), struck out “and” at end of par. (3), added par. (4), and redesignated former par. (4) as (5).
Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 103–322, § 40505, added subsec. (i).
1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–647, § 2509, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added pars. (2) and (3).
Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 101–647, § 3595, substituted “604(a)(18)” for “604(a)(17)”.
1988—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–690 amended subsec. (h) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (h) read as follows: “An order of restitution may be enforced by the United States in the manner provided in sections 3812 and 3813 or in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action, and by the victim named in the order to receive the restitution in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action.”
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–182 substituted “revoke probation or a term of supervised release,” for “revoke probation,” in two places and inserted “probation or” after “modify the term or conditions of” in two places.
1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–646, § 20(a), which directed that subsec. (a)(1) be amended by inserting “, in the case of a misdemeanor,” after “in addition to or”, was executed to subsec. (a) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the prior amendment to subsec. (a) by Pub. L. 99–646, § 8(b), below.
Pub. L. 99–646, § 8(b), struck out par. (1) designation, and struck out par. (2) which read as follows: “If the court does not order restitution, or orders only partial restitution, under this section, the court shall state on the record the reasons therefor.”
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–646, § 77(a), amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: “The court shall impose an order of restitution to the extent that such order is as fair as possible to the victim and the imposition of such order will not unduly complicate or prolong the sentencing process.”
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–596, § 9(1), substituted “court” for “Court” after “If the”.
Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 98–596, § 9(2), added par. (4).
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98–473, § 212(a)(3)(A), amended subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (g) read as follows: “If such defendant is placed on probation or paroled under this title, any restitution ordered under this section shall be a condition of such probation or parole. The court may revoke probation and the Parole Commission may revoke parole if the defendant fails to comply with such order. In determining whether to revoke probation or parole, the court or Parole Commission shall consider the defendant’s employment status, earning ability, financial resources, the willfulness of the defendant’s failure to pay, and any other special circumstances that may have a bearing on the defendant’s ability to pay.”
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98–473, § 212(a)(3)(B), amended subsec. (h) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (h) read as follows: “An order of restitution may be enforced by the United States in the manner provided for the collection of fines and penalties by section 3565 or by a victim named in the order to receive the restitution in the same manner as a judgment in a civil action.”
Amendment by Pub. L. 104–132 to be effective, to extent constitutionally permissible, for sentencing proceedings in cases in which defendant is convicted on or after Apr. 24, 1996, see section 211 of Pub. L. 104–132, set out as a note under section 2248 of this title.
Amendment by section 212(a)(3) of Pub. L. 98–473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.
Pub. L. 97–291, § 7, Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1257, required the Attorney General to report, by Oct. 12, 1982, to Congress regarding any laws that are necessary to ensure that no Federal felon derives any profit from the sale of the recollections, thoughts, and feelings of such felon with regards to the offense committed by the felon until any victim of the offense receives restitution.
 So in original. Probably should be “(ii)),”.