2 U.S. Code § 658 - Definitions
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For purposes of this part:
The term “amount”, with respect to an authorization of appropriations for Federal financial assistance, means the amount of budget authority for any Federal grant assistance program or any Federal program providing loan guarantees or direct loans.
(3) Direct costs
The term “direct costs”—
(i) in the case of a Federal intergovernmental mandate, means the aggregate estimated amounts that all State, local, and tribal governments would be required to spend or would be prohibited from raising in revenues in order to comply with the Federal intergovernmental mandate; or
(B) in the case of a Federal private sector mandate, means the aggregate estimated amounts that the private sector will be required to spend in order to comply with the Federal private sector mandate;
(C) shall be determined on the assumption that—
(i) State, local, and tribal governments, and the private sector will take all reasonable steps necessary to mitigate the costs resulting from the Federal mandate, and will comply with applicable standards of practice and conduct established by recognized professional or trade associations; and
(D) shall not include—
(i) estimated amounts that the State, local, and tribal governments (in the case of a Federal intergovernmental mandate) or the private sector (in the case of a Federal private sector mandate) would spend—
(I) to comply with or carry out all applicable Federal, State, local, and tribal laws and regulations in effect at the time of the adoption of the Federal mandate for the same activity as is affected by that Federal mandate; or
(ii) expenditures to the extent that such expenditures will be offset by any direct savings to the State, local, and tribal governments, or by the private sector, as a result of—
(4) Direct savings
The term “direct savings”, when used with respect to the result of compliance with the Federal mandate—
(A) in the case of a Federal intergovernmental mandate, means the aggregate estimated reduction in costs to any State, local, or tribal government as a result of compliance with the Federal intergovernmental mandate; and
(5) Federal intergovernmental mandate
The term “Federal intergovernmental mandate” means—
(A) any provision in legislation, statute, or regulation that—
(i) would impose an enforceable duty upon State, local, or tribal governments, except—
(II) a duty arising from participation in a voluntary Federal program, except as provided in subparagraph (B));  or
(ii) would reduce or eliminate the amount of authorization of appropriations for—
(I) Federal financial assistance that would be provided to State, local, or tribal governments for the purpose of complying with any such previously imposed duty unless such duty is reduced or eliminated by a corresponding amount; or
(II) the control of borders by the Federal Government; or reimbursement to State, local, or tribal governments for the net cost associated with illegal, deportable, and excludable aliens, including court-mandated expenses related to emergency health care, education or criminal justice; when such a reduction or elimination would result in increased net costs to State, local, or tribal governments in providing education or emergency health care to, or incarceration of, illegal aliens; except that this subclause shall not be in effect with respect to a State, local, or tribal government, to the extent that such government has not fully cooperated in the efforts of the Federal Government to locate, apprehend, and deport illegal aliens;
(B) any provision in legislation, statute, or regulation that relates to a then-existing Federal program under which $500,000,000 or more is provided annually to State, local, and tribal governments under entitlement authority, if the provision—
(I) would increase the stringency of conditions of assistance to State, local, or tribal governments under the program; or
(6) Federal mandate
The term “Federal mandate” means a Federal intergovernmental mandate or a Federal private sector mandate, as defined in paragraphs (5) and (7).
(7) Federal private sector mandate
The term “Federal private sector mandate” means any provision in legislation, statute, or regulation that—
(A) would impose an enforceable duty upon the private sector except—
(8) Local government
(9) Private sector
The term “private sector” means all persons or entities in the United States, including individuals, partnerships, associations, corporations, and educational and nonprofit institutions, but shall not include State, local, or tribal governments.
(10) Regulation; rule
(11) Small government
(13) Tribal government
The term “tribal government” means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation as defined in or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (85 Stat. 688; 43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) which is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their special status as Indians.
 So in original. Second closing parenthesis probably should not appear.
Source(Pub. L. 93–344, title IV, § 421, as added Pub. L. 104–4, title I, § 101(a)(2),Mar. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 50.)
References in Text
The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in par. (13), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§ 1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.
Part effective Jan. 1, 1996, or on the date 90 days after appropriations are made available as authorized under section 1516 of this title, whichever is earlier, and applicable to legislation considered on and after such date, see section 110 ofPub. L. 104–4, set out as a note under section 1511 of this title.