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23 U.S. Code § 102 - Program efficiencies

(a) Access of Motorcycles.—
No State or political subdivision of a State may enact or enforce a law that applies only to motorcycles and the principal purpose of which is to restrict the access of motorcycles to any highway or portion of a highway for which Federal-aid highway funds have been utilized for planning, design, construction, or maintenance.
(b) Savings Provision.—
Nothing in this section shall affect the authority of a State or political subdivision of a State to regulate motorcycles for safety.
Editorial Notes

2021—Pub. L. 117–58 designated second sentence of subsec. (a) as subsec. (b), inserted heading, and struck out former subsec. (b). Prior to amendment, text of subsec. (b) read as follows: “If on-site construction of, or acquisition of right-of-way for, a highway project is not commenced within 10 years (or such longer period as the State requests and the Secretary determines to be reasonable) after the date on which Federal funds are first made available, out of the Highway Trust Fund (other than Mass Transit Account), for preliminary engineering of such project, the State shall pay an amount equal to the amount of Federal funds reimbursed for the preliminary engineering. The Secretary shall deposit in such Fund all amounts paid to the Secretary under this section.”

2012—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–141 substituted “reimbursed for the preliminary engineering” for “made available for such engineering”.

2005—Pub. L. 109–59 redesignated subsecs. (b) and (c) as (a) and (b), respectively, and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (a). Text read as follows:

“(1) In general.—A State transportation department shall establish the occupancy requirements of vehicles operating in high occupancy vehicle lanes; except that no fewer than 2 occupants per vehicle may be required and, subject to section 163 of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982, motorcycles and bicycles shall not be considered single occupant vehicles.

“(2) Exception for inherently low-emission vehicles.—Notwithstanding paragraph (1), before September 30, 2003, a State may permit a vehicle with fewer than 2 occupants to operate in high occupancy vehicle lanes if the vehicle is certified as an Inherently Low-Emission Vehicle pursuant to title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, and is labeled in accordance with, section 88.312–93(c) of such title. Such permission may be revoked by the State should the State determine it necessary.”

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–178, § 1209, designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, realigned margins, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–178, § 1212(a)(2)(A)(i), substituted “State transportation department” for “State highway department”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–178, § 1206, added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–178, § 1304, which directed insertion of “(or such longer period as the State requests and the Secretary determines to be reasonable)” after “10 years” in first sentence of subsec. (b), was executed by making the insertion in first sentence of subsec. (c) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the amendment by Pub. L. 105–178, § 1206. See below.

Pub. L. 105–178, § 1206, redesignated subsec. (b) as (c).

1991—Pub. L. 102–240 substituted section catchline for one which read: “Authorizations” and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The provisions of this title apply to all unappropriated authorizations contained in prior Acts, and also to all unexpended appropriations, heretofore made, providing for the expenditure of Federal funds upon the Federal-aid systems. All such authorizations and appropriations shall continue in full force and effect, but hereafter obligations entered into and expenditures made pursuant thereto shall be subject to the provisions of this title.”

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 117–58 effective Oct. 1, 2021, see section 10003 of Pub. L. 117–58, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–240 effective Dec. 18, 1991, and applicable to funds authorized to be appropriated or made available after Sept. 30, 1991, and, with certain exceptions, not applicable to funds appropriated or made available on or before Sept. 30, 1991, see section 1100 of Pub. L. 102–240, set out as a note under section 104 of this title.