DefinitionsIn this chapter, the following definitions apply:
The term “Federal laboratory” includes a Government-owned, Government-operated laboratory and a Government-owned, contractor-operated laboratory.
The term “incident” means a crash, natural disaster, workzone activity, special event, or other emergency road user occurrence that adversely affects or impedes the normal flow of traffic.
(3)Innovation lifecycle.—The term “innovation lifecycle” means the process of innovating through—
the identification of a need;
the establishment of the scope of research to address that need;
carrying out research, development, deployment, and testing of the resulting technology or innovation; and
carrying out an evaluation of the costs and benefits of the resulting technology or innovation.
(4)Intelligent transportation infrastructure.—
The term “intelligent transportation infrastructure” means fully integrated public sector intelligent transportation system components, as defined by the Secretary.
(5)Intelligent transportation system.—
The terms “intelligent transportation system” and “ITS” mean electronics, photonics, communications, or information processing used singly or in combination to improve the efficiency or safety of a surface transportation system.
(6)National architecture.—For purposes of this chapter, the term “national architecture” means the common framework for interoperability that defines—
the functions associated with intelligent transportation system user services;
the physical entities or subsystems within which the functions reside;
the data interfaces and information flows between physical subsystems; and
the communications requirements associated with the information flows.
The term “project” means an undertaking to research, develop, or operationally test intelligent transportation systems or any other undertaking eligible for assistance under this chapter.
The term “safety” includes highway and traffic safety systems, research, and development relating to vehicle, highway, driver, passenger, bicyclist, and pedestrian characteristics, accident investigations, communications, emergency medical care, and transportation of the injured.
(9)Standard.—The term “standard” means a document that—
contains technical specifications or other precise criteria for intelligent transportation systems that are to be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics so as to ensure that materials, products, processes, and services are fit for the intended purposes of the materials, products, processes, and services; and
(B) may support the national architecture and promote—
the widespread use and adoption of intelligent transportation system technology as a component of the surface transportation systems of the United States; and
interoperability among intelligent transportation system technologies implemented throughout the States.
(Added Pub. L. 105–178, title V, § 5101(2)
, June 9, 1998
, 112 Stat. 422
; amended Pub. L. 112–141, div. E, title II, § 52001
, July 6, 2012
, 126 Stat. 865
A prior section 501, added Pub. L. 90–495, § 30, Aug. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 830, related to declaration of policy as to highway relocation assistance, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 91–646, title II, § 220(a)(10), Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1903.
2012—Pars. (2) to (9). Pub. L. 112–141 added pars. (2) to (7), redesignated former par. (2) as (8), and added par. (9).
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