26 U.S. Code § 4052 - Definitions and special rules
The term “first retail sale” means the first sale, for a purpose other than for resale or leasing in a long-term lease, after production, manufacture, or importation.
If any person uses an article taxable under section 4051 before the first retail sale of such article, then such person shall be liable for tax under section 4051 in the same manner as if such article were sold at retail by him.
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to use of an article as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, another article to be manufactured or produced by him.
In the case of any article sold (otherwise than through an arm’s-length transaction) at less than the fair market price, the tax under this subchapter shall be computed on the price for which similar articles are sold at retail in the ordinary course of trade, as determined by the Secretary.
For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “presumed markup percentage” means the average markup percentage of retailers of articles of the type involved, as determined by the Secretary.
Except as provided in clause (ii), the term “related person” means any person who is a member of the same controlled group (within the meaning of section 5061(e)(3)) as the manufacturer, producer, or importer.
To the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, a person shall not be treated as a related person with respect to the sale of any article if such article is sold through a permanent retail establishment in the normal course of the trade or business of being a retailer.
For purposes of this subchapter (other than subsection (a)(3)(B)), a person shall not be treated as engaged in the manufacture of any article by reason of merely combining such article with any item listed in paragraph (2).
The items listed in this paragraph are any coupling device (including any fifth wheel), wrecker crane, loading and unloading equipment (including any crane, hoist, winch, or power liftgate), aerial ladder or tower, snow and ice control equipment, earthmoving, excavation and construction equipment, spreader, sleeper cab, cab shield, or wood or metal floor.
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, rules similar to the rules of subsections (c) and (d) of section 4216 (relating to partial payments) shall apply for purposes of this subchapter.
For purposes of this section, the term “long-term lease” means any lease with a term of 1 year or more. In determining a lease term for purposes of the preceding sentence, the rules of section 168(i)(3)(A) shall apply.
An article described in section 4051(a)(1) shall not be treated as manufactured or produced solely by reason of repairs or modifications to the article (including any modification which changes the transportation function of the article or restores a wrecked article to a functional condition) if the cost of such repairs and modifications does not exceed 75 percent of the retail price of a comparable new article.
The Secretary shall prescribe regulations which permit, in lieu of any other certification, persons who are purchasing articles taxable under this subchapter for resale or leasing in a long-term lease to execute a statement (made under penalties of perjury) on the sale invoice that such sale is for resale. The Secretary shall not impose any registration requirement as a condition of using such procedure.
A prior section 4052, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 479, provided that lease of an article would be considered the sale of article for excise tax purposes, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, § 1904(a)(1)(D), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1811.
1998—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 105–206 substituted “such section” for “this section”.
1997—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(ii) to (iv). Pub. L. 105–34, § 1402(b), inserted “and” at end of cl. (ii), redesignated cl. (iv) as (iii), and struck out former cl. (iii) which read as follows: “the fair market value (including any tax imposed by section 4071) at retail of any tires (not including any metal rim or rim base), and”.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–34, § 1434(b)(1), substituted “rules of subsections (c) and (d) of section 4216 (relating to partial payments) shall apply” for “rules of—
“(1) subsections (c) and (d) of section 4216 (relating to partial payments), and
“(2) section 4222 (relating to registration),
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–34, § 1434(a), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e).
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–34, § 1434(a), added subsec. (f). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (e).
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–34, § 1434(b)(2), added subsec. (g).
1988—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted “production, manufacture” for “manufacture, production”.
1987—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–17, § 505(a), inserted “or leasing in a long-term lease” after “resale”.
Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100–17, § 505(b), added par. (3).
Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 100–17, § 506(a), added par. (4).
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–17, § 505(c), added subsec. (f).
1984—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 98–369, § 731, added cl. (iv).
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369, § 735(b)(2), in amending subsec. (c) generally, designated existing provisions as par. (1), in par. (1) as so designated substituted “by reason of merely combining such article with any article listed in paragraph (2)” for “with any equipment or other item listed in section 4063(d)”, and added par. (2).
Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Highway Revenue Act of 1982, title V of Pub. L. 97–424, to which such amendment relates, see section 736 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 4051 of this title.
Written determinations for this section
These documents, sometimes referred to as "Private Letter Rulings", are taken from the IRS Written Determinations page; the IRS also publishes a fuller explanation of what they are and what they mean. The collection is updated (at our end) daily. It appears that the IRS updates their listing every Friday.
Note that the IRS often titles documents in a very plain-vanilla, duplicative way. Do not assume that identically-titled documents are the same, or that a later document supersedes another with the same title. That is unlikely to be the case.
Release dates appear exactly as we get them from the IRS. Some are clearly wrong, but we have made no attempt to correct them, as we have no way guess correctly in all cases, and do not wish to add to the confusion.
We truncate results at 20000 items. After that, you're on your own.
LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.