U.S. Code: Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE

This title was enacted by act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, § 1, 62 Stat. 869

Current through 114-49

Amendments

1966—Pub. L. 89–554, § 4(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 611, substituted “Department of Justice” for “United States Attorneys and Marshals” in item for part II.

Table Showing Disposition of All Sections of Former Title 28

Title 28

Former Sections

Title 28

New Sections

1 Court of Claims Rules were replaced by U.S. Claims Court Rules effective Oct. 1, 1982, and subsequently by United States Court of Federal Claims Rules effective Dec. 4, 1992.

2 Admiralty Rules were superseded July 1, 1966, by Supplemental Rules for Certain Admiralty and Maritime Claims.

1–4bb

132–134

1 nt

133

5

135

5a

T. 48 § 1392a

5b

Elim.

6, 7

751

8

751, 954

9

604, 755

9a

1915

9a(a)

753, 1920

9a(b)

753

9a(c)

550, 604, 753, 1915

9a(d)

753

9a(e)

1915

9b

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 75.

10

457

11, 12

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 6(c), Cr. Proc. R. 45(c).

13

452

14

Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 45(c).

15

141

16

140, 296

17

291, 292, 295, 296

18

296

19

Rep.

20

295

21

292

22

291, 296

23

296

24

455

25

144

26

143

27

137

41(1)

1331, 1332, 1341, 1342, 1345, 1354, 1359

41(2)

Rep.

41(3)

1333, 1356

41(4)

Rep.

41(5)

1340

41(6)

1339

41(7)

1338

41(8)

1337

41(9)

1355

41(10)

Rep.

41(11)

1357

41(12–14)

1343

41(15)

1344

41(16)

1348

41(17)

1350

41(18)

1351

41(19)

1334

41(20)

1346, 2401, 2402

41(21)

Rep.

41(22)

Rep.

41(23)

1337

41(24)

1353

41(25)

1357, 1399

41(26)

1335, 1397, 2361

41(27), (28)

1336

42

1349

43

1398

44

2321

45

Rep.

45a

2323

46

2324

47

1253, 2101, 2284, 2325

47a

1253, 2101, 2284

48

2322

49–51

Rep.

52

Elim.

53

T. 15 § 146a

71

1441, 1445, 1447

72

1446, 1447

73

Rep.

74

1443, 1446, 1447

75

1446

76

1442, 1446, 1447

77

1442

78

1449

79

1450

80

1359, 1447, 1919

81

1447

82

Rep.

83

1447, 1448

101

T. 18 § 3235

102

T. 18 § 3238

103

T. 18 § 3237

104

1395

105

1396

106–108

1395

109

1400, 1694

110

1394

111

1391

112

1391, 1401, 1693, 1695

113

1392

114

1393, 1441

115

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 4(f).

116

1392

117

754, 1692

118

1655

119

1404

120

Rep.

121

1405; T. 18 § 3240

122

1656

123

Rep.

124

959; T. 18 § 1911

124a

960

125

959

126

458

127

957

128

604, 752

141

Rep.

142

81

143

82

144

83

145

84

146

85, 140

147

86

148

87

149

89

149a, 149b

Rep.

150

90

150a

Rep.

151

92

152

93

153

94

154, 155

Rep.

156, 156a

95

157

96

158

97

159

98

160

99

161

Rep.

162

Rep.

163

1404

164

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 77.

165

Rep.

166

100

167

101

168

102

169

103

170

104

171

105

172

106

173

107

174

108

175

109

176

110

177

111

178, 178a

112

179

113

179a

Elim.

180

114

181

115, 1865

182

116, 138

182a

116

183

117

184

118

184a

Elim.

185

120

186

121

186a

Elim.

187

122

188

123

189

124

189a

Elim.

190

125

191

126

192, 192a

127

193

128

194

129

195

130

196

131

211

41

211a

Rep.

212

43, 46

213

44

213a–213h

Elim.

214

Rep.

215

42

216

45, 47, 292

216a

45

217

Rep.

218

231, 456

219

2071

220

547

221

711, 956

222

711, 954

222a

604, 712

223

48

224

Rep.

225(a)

1291, 1293

225(b)

1292

225(c)

Rep.

225(d)

1294

225(e), (f)

Rep.

226

Rep.

227

1292

227a

1292, 2107

228, 228a

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 73.

229

Rep.

230

2107

231

2108

241

171, 173, 453

242

Rep.

243

174, 175

244

791, 795, 956

245

604

246

952

247

Rep.

248

415, 791

249

T. 18 § 282

250(1)

1491, 1501

250(2)

1503, 2501

250(3)

1496

250a

1497, 2501

250b

Rep.

251

Rep.

252

2508

253

2512

254

1493, 2510

255

2510

256

Rep.

257

1492, 2509

258

2412

259

1502

259a

T. 25 § 70w (Rep. See T. 28 § 1505).

260

1500

261

2502

262

2501

263

792, 2071

264

459, 953

265

Rep. See Ct. Claims R. 1, 10, 16 et seq.1

266

Rep. See Ct. Claims R. 10.1

267, 268

Rep.

268a

604, 793

269

792, 2503

270

456, 792, 794

271

Rep.

272

2507

273

Rep.

274

2504

275, 275a

2505

276

2503

277

Rep. See Ct. Claims R. 40 et seq.1

278

2503

278a

604, 793

279, 280

2514

281, 282

2515

283

2520

283a

791, 2520

284

2516

285

2517

286

2519

287

1494, 2511

288

1255

289

791

290, 291

Rep.

292

2506

293

Rep.

296

251–254, 456, 1581, 2071, 2639, 2640

296a

456

297

2636

301

211–213, 215, 293, 296

301a

213

301b

(See former 301a)

302

214, 452, 456, 604

303

604, 832

304

604, 831, 956, 957, 1926

305

604, 831, 833, 834, 956

306

604, 834

307

211, 2071

308

1256, 1541

309

Rep.

309a

1542

310

2601

311

Rep.

312

216

321

1

322

4

323

3

324

5

325

671–673

326

671, 1737

327

671, 954

328

675

329

6

330

1911

331

672

332, 333

673

334

411

335

412

336

Elim.

337

413

338

2

339, 340

Rep.

341

1251

342

1651

343

1872

344

1257, 2103, 2106

345

Rep.

346, 347

1254

348, 349

Rep.

349a

1252, 2101

350

2101

351

2102

352

Rep. See Sup. Ct. R. 32.

353

Rep.

354

676

371(1)

Rep.

371(2)

1355

371(3)

1333

371(4)

1333, 1356

371(5)

1338

371(6)

1334

371(7)

1251

371(8)

1251, 1351

372

453

373

454

374

456

374a

Elim.

374b

604

374c, 374d

752

375

136, 294, 371

375a

294, 371

375b–375d

372

375e

Rep.

375f

294

375g, 375h

373

376, 377

1651

377a–377c

D.C. Code, §§ 16–3501 to 16–3503

378

Rep.

379

2283

380

1253, 2101, 2281, 2284

380a

1253, 2101, 2282, 2284

381

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 65.

382

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 65(c).

383

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 65(d).

384

Rep.

385

459; T. 18 § 401

386

T. 18 §§ 402, 3691

387

T. 18 § 402

388

Rep.

389

T. 18 §§ 402, 3691

390

T. 18 § 3285

390a

T. 18 § 402

391

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 59, 61; Cr. Proc. R. 33, 52.

392

T. 18 § 3043

393

T. 22 § 258a

394

1654

395

556, 955

396

556, 955

397, 398

Rep.

399

1653

400

2201, 2202

401

2403

402

374

411

1861

412, 412a

1864

413

1865

414

Rep.

415

1861, 1863

416

1867, 1868

417

1866, 1868

417a

Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 24(c).

418

1866

419

T. 18 § 3321

420

Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 6(c).

421

Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 6(a), (g).

422

Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 6(g).

423

1869

424

1870

425

Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 24(b).

426

Rep.

430, 430a

Rep.

431–432a

Rep.

433, 434

Rep.

441–443

Rep.

444

601, 603, 606, 608

445

602, 603, 607

446

604, 609

447

604, 605

448

332

449

333, 456

450

333, 604, 610

451–453

2241

454

2242

455–461

2243

462

2252

463(a)

2253

463(b)–(d)

Rep.

464

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 73–75, 81(a)(2).

465

2251

466

2253

481

501

481a

Elim.

482

504

483

502

484

550

485–489

547

490

541

490a

Elim.

491

541

492, 493

542

494

543

495

548

496–498

564

499

564, 1737

500–502

564

503

547

504

549

504a

T. 18 § 3053

505

550

506

546

507

554

508

555

509, 510

Rep.

511

506, 544, 545

512

951

513, 514

952, 1737

515–517

952

518, 519

Rep.

520

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 81(b).

521

Rep.

522

T. 18 § 2076

523

953

523a, 523b

457

524

505, 541, 751

525

636, 953

526

631

527

631, 958

528

638

528a

638, 639

529

Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 55.

530

413, 414

530a

Elim.

531

T. 18 § 1910

541, 542

671

543

1913

544

604, 711, 961, 962

545

604

546

711

547

604, 713

548

Rep.

549

1914

550, 551

Rep.

552

1917

553

1914

554

Rep.

555

1914

556

Rep.

557

604, 751

558

604

559

Rep.

560

604, 962

561, 561a

604

562

604, 962

563

604, 961

564

Rep.

565, 566

604

567–569

751

570

Rep.

571, 572

1923

572a

T. 18 § 155

573

Rep.

574

553, 1921

575

Rep.

576

553

577

551, 1929

578

1923

578a

551

578b, 578c

Rep.

579

508, 552

580

508

581

Rep.

582, 583

552, 553

584, 584a, 585

553

586

509, 550

586a

Rep.

587

509, 553

588, 589

Rep.

590

T. 18 § 203

591

Rep.

592

509

593

510

594

502

595, 596

604, 755

597–597c

635

598–599a

636

600–600b

1871

600c

1821, 1825

600d

Rep.

601

Elim.

602

1824

603–604a

1823

605

Rep.

606, 607

T. 44 §§ 325, 326 (See Rev. T. 44 Table)

608

1825, 1871

609

Rep.

631

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 43.

632

T. 18 § 3481

633

Rep.

634

T. 18 § 3486

635

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 43(a).

636

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 34, 55.

637

2072, 2073

638

1731

639–641

Note prec. 1781

642

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 28.

643, 644

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 26 et seq.

645

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 27(a)(4).

646

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 26 et seq.

647

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 45; Cr. Proc. R. 17.

648

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 45(d); Cr. Proc. R. 17(f).

649–652

1782

653

1781, 1782

654

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 45(e)(1); Cr. Proc. R. 17(e).

655

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 45; Cr. Proc. R. 17.

656

Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 17(b).

657

Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 46(b).

658

Rep.

659

Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 46(b).

660

Rep.

661–667

1733

668

T. 18 § 3497

669

Rep.

670

1743

671

1733

672

Rep.

673

1744

674

1745

675

Rep.

676

1736

677

1740

678–680

Rep.

681–684

1734

685, 686

1735

687

1738

688

1739

689

1742

690

T. 30 § 53

695

1732

695a

T. 18 § 3491

695b

T. 18 § 3492

695c

T. 18 § 3493

695d

T. 18 § 3494

695e

1741

695e–1

T. 22 § 4222

695f

T. 18 § 3495

695g

T. 18 § 3496

695h

Rep.

701

1782

702

1785

703, 704

1782

711–713

1783

714–718

1784

721

1691

722

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 4.

723

2071, 2073

723a

T. 18 § 3772

723a–1

T. 18 § 3771

723b, 723c

2072

724

Rep.

725

1652

726

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 64.

727

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 69.

728

Rep.

729

T. 42 § 1988

730

2072, 2073

731

2071

732–734

Rep.

735

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 4; Cr. Proc. R. 4, 9; Adm. R. 1.2

736

Rep.

737

See 2710

738

See 2711

739

See 2712

740

See 2713

741

See 2714

742

See 2715

743

See 2716

744

See 2717

745

Rep.

746

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 64.

747

2463

748–750

2405

751, 752

Rep.

753

Adm. R. 6–8, 10, 12 2

754

2464

755–757

Rep.

758

636

759, 760

Rep.

761

2071, 2072

762

1402

763

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 4(d), 12(a), 55(e).

764

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 52, 75.

765

2411

766

2409

767

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 4(h).

768

Rep. See Sup. Ct. R. 20.

769

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 40.

770

1873

771

Adm. R. 46½ 2

772

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 39(c), 48.

773

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 38 et seq.

774

2406

775

Rep.

776

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 46, 63, 75.

777

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 1, 15, 61.

778–780

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 25, 81.

780a

2404

781

2407

782

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 12(a).

783

Rep.

784

T. 19 § 579

785

1874

786

Rep.

787

T. 19 § 580

788

See 2718

789

Rep.

790

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 75; Adm. R. 49.2

791

2462

792

2284

811

1961

811a

Rep.

812

1962

813

Rep.

814

1962

815

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 41(d), 42(a), 54(d), 68.

816

Rep.

817

Elim.

818

2465

819

Rep.

820

Rep.

821

1928

822

1918

823, 824

Rep.

825

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 42(a).

826

Rep.

827

2465

828

1922

829

1927

830

1920

831

1924

832–836

1915

837

1916

838

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 4.

839

2413

840

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 59, 62.

841

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 62(f).

842

2006

843–845

2007

846

2005

847

2001

848

2004

849

2002

850

2003

851

2041

852

2042

861

Rep.

861a

Rep.

861b

Elim.

862

Rep.

863

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 75; Adm. R. 49.2

864

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 75(k).

865–867

Rep.

868

Rep. See Sup. Ct. R. 10, 36.

869

Rep.

870

2408

871

2104

872

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 73.

873

Rep.

874

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 62(d), 73(d); Sup. Ct. R. 36.

875

Rep. See Civ. Proc. R. 46, 52, 73, 75.

876, 877

2106

878

1912

879

2105

880

Rep.

901, 902

2410

903

1444

904, 905

2410

906

Rep.

921

2672

922

2673

931(a)

1346, 1402, 2402, 2411, 2412, 2674

931(b)

2675, 2676

932

1346, 2411

933(a)(1)

1291

933(a)(2)

1504, 2110

933(b)

Rep.

934

2677

941

2671

942

2401

943

2680

944

2678

945

2679

946

Elim.

Enactment Into Law; Citation

Section 1 of act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 869, provided in part:

“That title 28 of the United States Code, entitled ‘Judicial Code and Judiciary’ is hereby revised, codified, and enacted into law, and may be cited as ‘Title 28, United States Code, section ___.’ ”

Legislative Construction

Section 33 of act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 991, provided that:

“No inference of a legislative construction is to be drawn by reason of the chapter in Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, as set out in section 1 of this Act, in which any section is placed, nor by reason of the catchlines used in such title.”

Separability

Section 34 of act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 991, provided that:

“If any part of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, as set out in section 1 of this Act, shall be held invalid, the remainder shall not be affected thereby.”

Effective Date

Section 38 of act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 992, provided that:

“The provisions of this Act shall take effect on September 1, 1948.”

Repeals; Rights and Liabilities Saved

Act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, § 39, 62 Stat. 992, repealed the sections or parts thereof of the Revised Statutes of the United States, Statutes at Large, or the Revised Statutes of the District of Columbia covering provisions codified in this title, but saved any rights or liabilities then existing under said sections or parts thereof.

R.S. § 1012 as affected by act Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, § 291, 36 Stat. 1167 [section 880 of former Title 28, Judicial Code and Judiciary], provided that appeals from district courts shall be subject to the same rules, regulations, and restrictions as are or may be prescribed in law in cases of writs of error. This provision was repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, § 39, 62 Stat. 992. Section 2 of act Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, 45 Stat. 54, as amended Apr. 26, 1928, ch. 440, 45 Stat. 466; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, § 23, 62 Stat. 990 [section 861b of former Title 28, Judicial Code and Judiciary], provided that: “All Acts of Congress referring to writs of error shall be construed as amended to the extent necessary to substitute appeal for writ of error.”

Writs of Error

Act Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, § 1, 45 Stat. 54 [section 861a of former Title 28, Judicial Code and Judiciary], provided that:

“The writ of error in cases, civil and criminal, is abolished. All relief which heretofore [Jan. 31, 1928] could be obtained by writ of error shall hereafter be obtainable by appeal.”
This provision was omitted from the 1948 Revised Judicial Code as obsolete, and repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, § 39, 62 Stat. 992.

Title 28 as Continuation of Existing Law; Change of Name of Circuit Courts of Appeals

Act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, § 2(b), 62 Stat. 985, provided that:

“The provisions of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, of the United States Code, set out in section 1 of this Act, with respect to the organization of each of the several courts therein provided for and of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, shall be construed as continuations of existing law, and the tenure of the judges, officers, and employees thereof and of the United States attorneys and marshals and their deputies and assistants, in office on the effective date of this Act [Sept. 1, 1948], shall not be affected by its enactment, but each of them shall continue to serve in the same capacity under the appropriate provisions of title 28, as set out in section 1 of this Act, pursuant to his prior appointment:
Provided, however
, That each circuit court of appeals shall, as in said title 28 set out, hereafter be known as a United States court of appeals. No loss of rights, interruption of jurisdiction, or prejudice to matters pending in any of such courts on the effective date of this Act shall result from its enactment.”

 

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