30 U.S. Code § 184 - Limitations on leases held, owned or controlled by persons, associations or corporations
No person, association, or corporation, or any subsidiary, affiliate, or persons controlled by or under common control with such person, association, or corporation shall take, hold, own or control at one time, whether acquired directly from the Secretary under this chapter or otherwise, coal leases or permits on an aggregate of more than 75,000 acres in any one State and in no case greater than an aggregate of 150,000 acres in the United States:
No person, association, or corporation shall take, hold, own, or control at one time, whether acquired directly from the Secretary under this chapter, or otherwise, phosphate leases or permits on an aggregate of more than twenty thousand four hundred and eighty acres in the United States.
Nothing contained in subsection (e) of this section shall be construed (i) to limit sections 227, 228, 251 of this title or (ii), subject to the approval of the Secretary, to prevent any number of lessees under this chapter from combining their several interests so far as may be necessary for the purpose of constructing and carrying on the business of a refinery or of establishing and constructing, as a common carrier, a pipeline or railroad to be operated and used by them jointly in the transportation of oil from their several wells or from the wells of other lessees under this chapter or in the transportation of coal or (iii) to increase the acreage which may be taken, held, owned, or controlled under this section.
Any ownership or interest otherwise forbidden in this chapter which may be acquired by descent, will, judgment, or decree may be held for two years after its acquisition and no longer.
Effective September 21, 1959, any person, association, or corporation who is a party to any proceeding with respect to a violation of any provision of this chapter, whether initiated prior to said date or thereafter, shall have the right to be dismissed promptly as such a party upon showing that he holds and acquired as a bona fide purchaser the interest involving him as such a party without violating any provisions of this chapter. No hearing upon any such showing shall be required unless the Secretary presents prima facie evidence indicating a possible violation of this chapter on the part of the alleged bona fide purchaser.
If during any such proceeding, a party thereto files with the Secretary a waiver of his rights under his lease (including particularly, where applicable, rights to drill and to assign) or if such rights are suspended by the Secretary pending a decision in the proceeding, whether initiated prior to enactment of this chapter or thereafter, payment of rentals and running of time against the term of the lease or leases involved shall be suspended as of the first day of the month following the filing of the waiver or suspension of the rights until the first day of the month following the final decision in the proceeding or the revocation of the waiver or suspension.
Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, if any lands or deposits subject to the provisions of this chapter shall be subleased, trusteed, possessed, or controlled by any device permanently, temporarily, directly, indirectly, tacitly, or in any manner whatsoever, so that they form a part of or are in any wise controlled by any combination in the form of an unlawful trust, with the consent of the lessee, optionee, or permittee, or form the subject of any contract or conspiracy in restraint of trade in the mining or selling of coal, phosphate, oil, oil shale, gilsonite (including all vein-type solid hydrocarbons), gas, or sodium entered into by the lessee, optionee, or permittee or any agreement or understanding, written, verbal, or otherwise, to which such lessee, optionee, or permittee shall be a party, of which his or its output is to be or become the subject, to control the price or prices thereof or of any holding of such lands by any individual, partnership, association, corporation, or control in excess of the amounts of lands provided in this chapter, the lease, option, or permit shall be forfeited by appropriate court proceedings.
 So in original. Probably should be followed by a colon.
 So in original. Probably should be “unenforceable”.
 So in original. Probably should be “unenforceability”.
The date of enactment of this section, referred to in subsec. (a), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 94–377, which was Aug. 4, 1976.
The Act entitled “An Act to protect trade and commerce against unlawful restraints and monopolies”, approved July 2, 1890, as amended, referred to in subsec. (
The Act entitled “An Act to supplement existing laws against unlawful restraints and monopolies, and for other purposes”, approved October 15, 1914, as amended, referred to in subsec. (
The Federal Trade Commission Act, referred to in subsec. (
Act of June 19, 1936, chapter 592, referred to in subsec. (
In subsec. (
2005—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 109–58 inserted “, and acreage under any lease any portion of which has been committed to a federally approved unit or cooperative plan or communitization agreement or for which royalty (including compensatory royalty or royalty in-kind) was paid in the preceding calendar year,” after “acreage held in special tar sand areas”.
2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–463 inserted heading, struck out “(1)” before “No person”, substituted “75,000 acres” for “forty-six thousand and eighty acres”, and substituted “150,000 acres” for “one hundred thousand acres” wherever appearing.
Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–191 substituted “30,720 acres” for “fifteen thousand three hundred and sixty acres”.
1981—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 97–78, § 1(5), inserted proviso that acreage held in special tar sand areas not be chargeable against State limitations.
Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 97–78, § 1(2), substituted “gilsonite (including all vein-type solid hydrocarbons)” for “native asphalt, solid and semisolid bitumen, bituminous rock”.
1976—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 94–377, § 11(a), inserted “or any subsidiary, affiliate, or persons controlled by or under common control with such person, association, or corporation” before “shall take, hold, own or control”, “and in no case greater than an aggregate of one hundred thousand acres in the United States” after “in any one State,” proviso relating to non-relinquishment of leases or permits by an entity owning or controlling more than an aggregate of one hundred thousand acres, and proviso prohibiting ownership or control of further Federal leases or permits until reduction to below an aggregate of one hundred thousand acres.
Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 94–377, § 11(b), struck out par. (2) providing for application, hearing and granting of additional acreage, not to exceed 5120 acres in any one State, to a person, association or corporation requiring such extra acreage to carry on business economically, and the subsequent reevaluation of such entity’s continuing need for such extra acreage.
1964—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 88–526 struck out “, except as otherwise provided in this subsection,” after “corporation” and increased aggregate number of acres from 10,240 to 46,080 acres.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–548 increased aggregate number of acres from 10,240 to 20,480 acres.
1960—Pub. L. 86–705 generally revised provisions and divided them into subsecs. (a) to (k). Other changes concerned: maximum acreage in Alaska, unreported options, their unenforceability, form for notice of options, party to give notice, inclusion of options in acreage determinations, charge of association or corporate holdings against principal stockholders, hearings requirement based upon prima facie evidence of violations, running of time against a lease and the payment of rentals during a waiver or suspension of a lessee’s rights.
Pub. L. 86–391 authorized issuance of phosphate permits.
1959—Pub. L. 86–294 inserted provision that the right of cancellation or forfeiture for violations shall not apply so as to affect adversely the interest of a bona fide purchaser in a lease acquired in conformity with acreage limitations; that bona fide purchasers in such situations have the right to be dismissed as parties from proceedings; and that if a party to proceedings files waiver of rights to drill or assigns his interests, or if such rights are suspended pending decision, he shall, if he is not in violation of provisions, have the right to have his interest extended for a period of time equal to the period between filing of waiver or order of suspension and final decision, without payment of rental.
1958—Pub. L. 85–698 increased limitation on acreage which may be taken or held under coal leases or permits in any one State from 5,120 to 10,240 acres, permitted applications for additional coal leases or permits not exceeding 5,120 additional acres in the State, provided for hearings on such applications, authorized reevaluation and cancellation of leases and permits for additional acreage, and prohibited assignment, transfer, or sale of any of the additional acreage without the Secretary’s approval.
1957—Pub. L. 85–122 struck out “or permits exceeding in the aggregate five thousand one hundred and twenty acres in any one State, and” after “phosphate leases” in second sentence.
1954—Act Aug. 2, 1954, increased acreage that any one person can hold in the aggregate from fifteen thousand three hundred and sixty acres to forty-six thousand and eighty acres, increased number of acres that can be held under option from one hundred thousand acres to two hundred thousand acres, and extended terms of the option from 2 to 3 years.
1948—Act June 1, 1948, substituted in second proviso “within two years after the passage of this Act” for “on or before August 8, 1950” in order to allow options to be exercised up to that time.
Act June 3, 1948, increased aggregate acreage allowed one person, etc., from two thousand five hundred and sixty acres to five thousand one hundred and twenty acres of coal or sodium leases, and increased the aggregate acreage allowed one person, etc., from seven thousand six hundred and eighty acres to fifteen thousand three hundred and sixty acres of oil or gas leases.
1946—Act Aug. 8, 1946, principally doubled amount of land that may be leased by any person or corporation in any one State and abolished former acreage limitation of 2,560 acres on one structure; excluded operating contracts and leases held in common from definition of “association”; inserted provisions relating to options; and omitted provisions relating to cooperative or unit plans and operating, drilling or development contracts.
1931—Act Mar. 4, 1931, amended section generally.
1930—Act July 3, 1930, amended section generally.
1926—Act Apr. 30, 1926, amended section generally.
See note set out under section 181 of this title.
Functions of Secretary of the Interior, referred to in subsec. (
Admission of Alaska into the Union was accomplished Jan. 3, 1959, on issuance of Proc. No. 3269, Jan. 3, 1959, 24 F.R. 81, 73 Stat. c16, as required by sections 1 and 8(c) of Pub. L. 85–508, July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 339, set out as notes preceding section 21 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.