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41 U.S. Code § 2301 - Use of electronic commerce in Federal procurement

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(a) Definition.—
For the purposes of this section, the term “electronic commerce” means electronic techniques for accomplishing business transactions, including electronic mail or messaging, World Wide Web technology, electronic bulletin boards, purchase cards, electronic funds transfers, and electronic data interchange.
(b) Establishment, Maintenance, and Use of Electronic Commerce Procedures and Processes.—
The head of each executive agency, after consulting with the Administrator, shall establish, maintain, and use, to the maximum extent that is practicable and cost-effective, procedures and processes that employ electronic commerce in the conduct and administration of the procurement system of the agency.
(c) Applicable Standards.—
In conducting electronic commerce, the head of an executive agency shall apply nationally and internationally recognized standards that broaden interoperability and ease the electronic interchange of information.
(d) Requirements of Systems, Technologies, Procedures, and Processes.—The head of each executive agency shall ensure that systems, technologies, procedures, and processes established pursuant to this section—
are implemented with uniformity throughout the agency, to the extent practicable;
are implemented only after granting due consideration to the use or partial use, as appropriate, of existing electronic commerce and electronic data interchange systems and infrastructures such as the Federal acquisition computer network architecture known as FACNET;
facilitate access to Federal Government procurement opportunities, including opportunities for small business concerns, socially and economically disadvantaged small business concerns, and business concerns owned predominantly by women; and
ensure that any notice of agency requirements or agency solicitation for contract opportunities is provided in a form that allows convenient and universal user access through a single, Government-wide point of entry.
(e) Implementation.—In carrying out the requirements of this section, the Administrator shall—
issue policies to promote, to the maximum extent practicable, uniform implementation of this section by executive agencies, with due regard for differences in program requirements among agencies that may require departures from uniform procedures and processes in appropriate cases, when warranted because of the agency mission;
ensure that the head of each executive agency complies with the requirements of subsection (d); and
consult with the heads of appropriate Federal agencies with applicable technical and functional expertise, including the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the General Services Administration, and the Department of Defense.
(f) Inapplicability to Department of Defense.—
In this section, the term “executive agency” does not include the Department of Defense.

Historical and Revision Notes



Source (U.S. Code)

Source (Statutes at Large)



Pub. L. 93–400, § 30, as added Pub. L. 103–355, title IX, § 9001(a), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3399; Pub. L. 105–85, title VIII, § 850(a), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1847; Pub. L. 106–398, § 1 [[div. A], title VIII, § 810(d)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654A–210.









In this section, the text of 41:426(e) is omitted as obsolete because the last report was to be submitted not later than March 1, 2004.

In subsection (c), the word “executive” is added for clarity and for consistency in the revised section.

In subsection (e)(2), the words “with respect to the agency systems, technologies, procedures, and processes established pursuant to this section” are omitted as unnecessary.

Editorial Notes

2016—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 114–328 added subsec. (f).

Executive Documents
Streamlining Procurement Through Electronic Commerce

Memorandum of President of the United States, Oct. 28, 1993, 58 F.R. 58095, provided:

Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies [and] the President’s Management Council

The Federal Government spends $200 billion annually buying goods and services. Unfortunately, the red tape and burdensome paperwork of the current procurement system increases costs, produces unnecessary delays, and reduces Federal work force productivity. Moving to an electronic commerce system to simplify and streamline the purchasing process will promote customer service and cost-effectiveness. The electronic exchange of acquisition information between the private sector and the Federal Government also will increase competition by improving access to Federal contracting opportunities for the more than 300,000 vendors currently doing business with the Government, particularly small businesses, as well as many other vendors who find access to bidding opportunities difficult under the current system. For these reasons, I am committed to fundamentally altering and improving the way the Federal Government buys goods and services by ensuring that electronic commerce is implemented for appropriate Federal purchases as quickly as possible.


The objectives of this electronic commerce initiative are to:

(a) exchange procurement information—such as solicitations, offers, contracts, purchase orders, invoices, payments, and other contractual documents—electronically between the private sector and the Federal Government to the maximum extent practical;

(b) provide businesses, including small, small disadvantaged, and women-owned businesses, with greater access to Federal procurement opportunities;

(c) ensure that potential suppliers are provided simplified access to the Federal Government’s electronic commerce system;

(d) employ nationally and internationally recognized data formats that serve to broaden and ease the electronic interchange of data; and

(e) use agency and industry systems and networks to enable the Government and potential suppliers to exchange information and access Federal procurement data.


The President’s Management Council, in coordination with the Office of Federal Procurement Policy of the Office of Management and Budget, and in consultation with appropriate Federal agencies with applicable technical and functional expertise, as necessary, shall provide overall leadership, management oversight, and policy direction to implement electronic commerce in the executive branch through the following actions:

(a) by March 1994, define the architecture for the Government-wide electronic commerce acquisition system and identify executive departments or agencies responsible for developing, implementing, operating, and maintaining the Federal electronic system;

(b) by September 1994, establish an initial electronic commerce capability to enable the Federal Government and private vendors to electronically exchange standardized requests for quotations, quotes, purchase orders, and notice of awards and begin Government-wide implementation;

(c) by July 1995, implement a full scale Federal electronic commerce system that expands initial capabilities to include electronic payments, document interchange, and supporting databases; and

(d) by January 1997, complete Government-wide implementation of electronic commerce for appropriate Federal purchases, to the maximum extent possible.

This implementation schedule should be accelerated where practicable.

The head of each executive department or agency shall:

(a) ensure that budgetary resources are available, within approved budget levels, for electronic commerce implementation in each respective department or agency;

(b) assist the President’s Management Council in implementing the electronic commerce system as quickly as possible in accordance with the schedules established herein; and

(c) designate one or more senior level employees to assist the President’s Management Council and serve as a point of contact for the development and implementation of the Federal electronic commerce system within each respective department or agency.


This directive is for the internal management of the executive branch and does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable by a party against the United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

The Director of the Office of Management and Budget is authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

William J. Clinton.