Section 13753, Pub. L. 103–322, title III, § 30203, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1841; Pub. L. 104–316, title I, § 122(u), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3838, related to qualification for payment.
Youth Violence Reduction Demonstration Projects
Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, § 1199, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3132, provided that:
“(a) Establishment of Youth Violence Reduction Demonstration Projects.—
The Attorney General shall make up to 5 grants for the purpose of carrying out Youth Violence Demonstration Projects to reduce juvenile and young adult violence, homicides, and recidivism among high-risk populations.
An entity is eligible for a grant under paragraph (1) if it is a unit of local government or a combination of local governments established by agreement for purposes of undertaking a demonstration project.
“(b) Selection of Grant Recipients.—
The Attorney General shall award grants for Youth Violence Reduction Demonstration Projects on a competitive basis.
“(2)Amount of awards.—
No single grant award made under subsection (a) shall exceed $15,000,000 per fiscal year.
“(3)Application.—An application for a grant under paragraph (1) shall be submitted to the Attorney General in such a form, and containing such information and assurances, as the Attorney General may require, and at a minimum shall propose—
a program strategy targeting areas with the highest incidence of youth violence and homicides;
outcome measures and specific objective indicia of performance to assess the effectiveness of the program; and
a plan for evaluation by an independent third party.
“(4)Distribution.—In making grants under this section, the Attorney General shall ensure the following:
No less than 1 recipient is a city with a population exceeding 1,000,000 and an increase of at least 30 percent in the aggregated juvenile and young adult homicide victimization rate during calendar year 2005 as compared to calendar year 2004.
No less than one recipient is a nonmetropolitan county or group of counties with per capita arrest rates of juveniles and young adults for serious violent offenses that exceed the national average for nonmetropolitan counties by at least 5 percent.
“(5)Criteria.—In making grants under this section, the Attorney General shall give preference to entities operating programs that meet the following criteria:
“(A) A program focusing on—
reducing youth violence and homicides, with an emphasis on juvenile and young adult probationers and other juveniles and young adults who have had or are likely to have contact with the juvenile justice system;
fostering positive relationships between program participants and supportive adults in the community; and
accessing comprehensive supports for program participants through coordinated community referral networks, including job opportunities, educational programs, counseling services, substance abuse programs, recreational opportunities, and other services.
A program goal of almost daily contacts with and supervision of participating juveniles and young adults through small caseloads and a coordinated team approach among case managers drawn from the community, probation officers, and police officers.
The use of existing structures, local government agencies, and nonprofit organizations to operate the program.
Inclusion in program staff of individuals who live or have lived in the community in which the program operates; have personal experiences or cultural competency that build credibility in relationships with program participants; and will serve as a case manager, intermediary, and mentor.
Fieldwork and neighborhood outreach in communities where the young violent offenders live, including support of the program from local public and private organizations and community members.
Imposition of graduated probation sanctions to deter violent and criminal behavior.
A record of program operation and effectiveness evaluation over a period of at least five years prior to the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 5, 2006].
A program structure that can serve as a model for other communities in addressing the problem of youth violence and juvenile and young adult recidivism.
“(c)Authorized Activities.—Amounts paid to an eligible entity under a grant award may be used for the following activities:
Designing and enhancing program activities.
Employing and training personnel.
Purchasing or leasing equipment.
Providing services and training to program participants and their families.
Supporting related law enforcement and probation activities, including personnel costs.
Establishing and maintaining a system of program records.
Acquiring, constructing, expanding, renovating, or operating facilities to support the program.
Evaluating program effectiveness.
Undertaking other activities determined by the Attorney General as consistent with the purposes and requirements of the demonstration program.
“(d) Evaluation and Reports.—
“(1)Independent evaluation.—The Attorney General may use up to $500,000 of funds appropriated annually under this such section to—
prepare and implement a design for interim and overall evaluations of performance and progress of the funded demonstration projects;
provide training and technical assistance to grant recipients; and
disseminate broadly the information generated and lessons learned from the operation of the demonstration projects.
“(2)Reports to congress.—Not later than 120 days after the last day of each fiscal year for which 1 or more demonstration grants are awarded, the Attorney General shall submit to Congress a report which shall include—
a summary of the activities carried out with such grants;
an assessment by the Attorney General of the program carried out; and
such other information as the Attorney General considers appropriate.
“(e) Federal Share.—
The Federal share of a grant awarded under this Act [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note set out under section 13701 of this title
] shall not exceed 90 percent of the total program costs.
The non-Federal share of such cost may be provided in cash or in-kind.
“(f)Definitions.—In this section:
“(1)Unit of local government.—
The term ‘unit of local government’ means a county, township, city, or political subdivision of a county, township, or city, that is a unit of local government as determined by the Secretary of Commerce for general statistical purposes.
The term ‘juvenile’ means an individual who is 17 years of age or younger.
The term ‘young adult’ means an individual who is 18 through 24 years of age.
“(g)Authorization of Appropriations.—
There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2007 and such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2008 through 2009, to remain available until expended.”
National Police Athletic/Activities League Youth Enrichment
Pub. L. 106–367, Oct. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 1412, as amended by Pub. L. 109–248, title VI, §§ 612–617, July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 632, 633, provided that:
“This Act may be cited as the ‘National Police Athletic/Activities League Youth Enrichment Act of 2000’.
FINDINGS.“Congress makes the following findings:
“(1) The goals of the Police Athletic/Activities League are to—
increase the academic success of youth participants in PAL programs;
promote a safe, healthy environment for youth under the supervision of law enforcement personnel where mutual trust and respect can be built;
develop life enhancing character and leadership skills in young people;
increase school attendance by providing alternatives to suspensions and expulsions;
reduce the juvenile crime rate in participating designated communities and the number of police calls involving juveniles during nonschool hours;
provide youths with alternatives to drugs, alcohol, tobacco, and gang activity;
create positive communications and interaction between youth and law enforcement personnel; and
prepare youth for the workplace.
The Police Athletic/Activities League, during its 90-year history as a national organization, has proven to be a positive force in the communities it serves.
The Police Athletic/Activities League is a network of 1,700 facilities serving over 3,000 communities. There are 350 PAL chapters throughout the United States, the Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, serving 2,000,000 youth, ages 5 to 18, nationwide.
Based on PAL chapter demographics, approximately 85 percent of the youths who benefit from PAL programs live in inner cities and urban areas.
PAL chapters are locally operated, volunteer-driven organizations. Although most PAL chapters are sponsored by a law enforcement agency, PAL chapters rarely receive direct funding from law enforcement agencies and are dependent in large part on support from the private sector, such as individuals, business leaders, corporations, and foundations. PAL chapters have been exceptionally successful in balancing public funds with private sector donations and maximizing community involvement.
Today’s youth face far greater risks than did their parents and grandparents. Law enforcement statistics demonstrate that youth between the ages of 12 and 18 are at risk of committing violent acts and being victims of violent acts between the hours of 3 p.m. and 8 p.m.
Greater numbers of students are dropping out of school and failing in school, even though the consequences of academic failure are more dire in 2005 than ever before.
Many distressed areas in the United States are still underserved by PAL chapters.
PURPOSE.“The purpose of this Act is to provide adequate resources in the form of—
assistance for the 342 established PAL chapters to increase of services to the communities they are serving;
seed money for the establishment of 250 (50 per year over a 5-year period) additional local PAL chapters in public housing projects and other distressed areas, including distressed areas with a majority population of Native Americans, by not later than fiscal year 2010; and
support of an annual gathering of PAL chapters and designated youth leaders from such chapters to participate in a 3-day conference that addresses national and local issues impacting the youth of America and includes educational sessions to advance character and leadership skills.
DEFINITIONS.“In this Act:
“(1)Assistant attorney general.—
The term ‘Assistant Attorney General’ means the Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Justice Programs of the Department of Justice.
The term ‘distressed area’ means an urban, suburban, or rural area with a high percentage of high-risk youth, as defined in section 509A of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 290aa–8(f)
) [now 42 U.S.C. 290bb–23(g)
The term ‘PAL chapter’ means a chapter of a Police or Sheriff’s Athletic/Activities League.
“(4)Police Athletic/activities league.—
The term ‘Police Athletic/Activities League’ means the private, nonprofit, national representative organization for 320 Police or Sheriff’s Athletic/Activities Leagues throughout the United States (including the Virgin Islands and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico).
“(5)Public housing; project.—
The terms ‘public housing’ and ‘project’ have the meanings given those terms in section 3(b) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437a(b)
Subject to appropriations, for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2010, the Assistant Attorney General shall award a grant to the Police Athletic/Activities League for the purpose of establishing PAL chapters to serve public housing projects and other distressed areas, and expanding existing PAL chapters to serve additional youths.
“(1)Submission.—In order to be eligible to receive a grant under this section, the Police Athletic/Activities League shall submit to the Assistant Attorney General an application, which shall include—
a long-term strategy to establish 250 additional PAL chapters and detailed summary of those areas in which new PAL chapters will be established, or in which existing chapters will be expanded to serve additional youths, during the next fiscal year;
a plan to ensure that there are a total of not fewer than 500 PAL chapters in operation before January 1, 2010;
a certification that there will be appropriate coordination with those communities where new PAL chapters will be located; and
an explanation of the manner in which new PAL chapters will operate without additional, direct Federal financial assistance once assistance under this Act is discontinued.
The Assistant Attorney General shall review and take action on an application submitted under paragraph (1) not later than 120 days after the date of such submission.
USE OF FUNDS.
“(a) In General.—
“(1)Assistance for new and expanded chapters.—
Amounts made available under a grant awarded under this Act shall be used by the Police Athletic/Activities League to provide funding for the establishment of PAL chapters serving public housing projects and other distressed areas, or the expansion of existing PAL chapters.
“(2)Program requirements.—Each new or expanded PAL chapter assisted under paragraph (1) shall carry out not less than two programs during nonschool hours, of which—
“(A) not less than one program shall provide—
recreational and athletic activities;
technology training; or
character development and leadership training; and
“(B) any remaining programs shall provide—
drug, alcohol, and gang prevention activities;
health and nutrition counseling;
cultural and social programs;
conflict resolution training, anger management, and peer pressure training;
job skill preparation activities; or
Youth Police Athletic/Activities League Conferences or Youth Forums.
“(b)Additional Requirements.—In carrying out the programs under subsection (a), a PAL chapter shall, to the maximum extent practicable—
use volunteers from businesses, academic communities, social organizations, and law enforcement organizations to serve as mentors or to assist in other ways;
ensure that youth in the local community participate in designing the after-school activities;
develop creative methods of conducting outreach to youth in the community;
request donations of computer equipment and other materials and equipment; and
work with State and local park and recreation agencies so that activities funded with amounts made available under a grant under this Act will not duplicate activities funded from other sources in the community served.
“(a)Report to Assistant Attorney General.—
For each fiscal year for which a grant is awarded under this Act, the Police Athletic/Activities League shall submit to the Assistant Attorney General a report on the use of amounts made available under the grant.
“(b)Report to Congress.—
Not later than May 1 of each fiscal year for which amounts are made available to carry out this Act, the Assistant Attorney General shall submit to the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report that details the progress made under this Act in establishing and expanding PAL chapters in public housing projects and other distressed areas, and the effectiveness of the PAL programs in reducing drug abuse, school dropouts, and juvenile crime.
AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.
There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this Act $16,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2010.
“(b)Funding for Program Administration.—Of the amount made available to carry out this Act in each fiscal year—
not less than 2 percent shall be used for research and evaluation of the grant program under this Act;
not less than 1 percent shall be used for technical assistance related to the use of amounts made available under grants awarded under this Act; and
not less than 1 percent shall be used for the management and administration of the grant program under this Act, except that the total amount made available under this paragraph for administration of that program shall not exceed 6 percent.”
[Pub. L. 109–248, title VI, § 612(3)(B), July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 632, which directed amendment of section 2(3) of Pub. L. 106–367, set out above, by substituting “2,000,000 youth” for “1,500,000 youth”, was executed by making the substitution for “1,500,000 youths”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.]
Kids 2000 Crime Prevention and Computer Education Initiative
Pub. L. 106–313, title I, § 112, Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1260, provided that:
This section may be cited as the ‘Kids 2000 Act’.
“(b)Findings.—Congress makes the following findings:
There is an increasing epidemic of juvenile crime throughout the United States.
It is well documented that the majority of juvenile crimes take place during after-school hours.
Knowledge of technology is becoming increasingly necessary for children in school and out of school.
The Boys and Girls Clubs of America have 2,700 clubs throughout all 50 States, serving over 3,000,000 boys and girls primarily from at-risk communities.
The Boys and Girls Clubs of America have the physical structures in place for immediate implementation of an after-school technology program.
Building technology centers and providing integrated content and full-time staffing at those centers in the Boys and Girls Clubs of America nationwide will help foster education, job training, and an alternative to crime for at-risk youth.
Partnerships between the public sector and the private sector are an effective way of providing after-school technology programs in the Boys and Girls Clubs of America.
PowerUp: Bridging the Digital Divide is an entity comprised of more than a dozen nonprofit organizations, major corporations, and Federal agencies that have joined together to launch a major new initiative to help ensure that America’s underserved young people acquire the skills, experiences, and resources they need to succeed in the digital age.
Bringing PowerUp into the Boys and Girls Clubs of America will be an effective way to ensure that our youth have a safe, crime-free environment in which to learn the technological skills they need to close the divide between young people who have access to computer-based information and technology-related skills and those who do not.
“(c) After-School Technology Grants to the Boys and Girls Clubs of America.—
“(1)Purposes.—The Attorney General shall make grants to the Boys and Girls Clubs of America for the purpose of funding effective after-school technology programs, such as PowerUp, in order to provide—
constructive technology-focused activities that are part of a comprehensive program to provide access to technology and technology training to youth during after-school hours, weekends, and school vacations;
supervised activities in safe environments for youth; and
full-time staffing with teachers, tutors, and other qualified personnel.
The Boys and Girls Clubs of America shall make subawards to local boys and girls clubs authorizing expenditures associated with providing technology programs such as PowerUp, including the hiring of teachers and other personnel, procurement of goods and services, including computer equipment, or such other purposes as are approved by the Attorney General.
In order to be eligible to receive a grant under this section, an applicant for a subaward (specified in subsection (c)(2)) shall submit an application to the Boys and Girls Clubs of America, in such form and containing such information as the Attorney General may reasonably require.
“(2)Application requirements.—Each application submitted in accordance with paragraph (1) shall include—
a request for a subgrant to be used for the purposes of this section;
a description of the communities to be served by the grant, including the nature of juvenile crime, violence, and drug use in the communities;
written assurances that Federal funds received under this section will be used to supplement and not supplant, non-Federal funds that would otherwise be available for activities funded under this section;
written assurances that all activities funded under this section will be supervised by qualified adults;
a plan for assuring that program activities will take place in a secure environment that is free of crime and drugs;
a plan outlining the utilization of content-based programs such as PowerUp, and the provision of trained adult personnel to supervise the after-school technology training; and
any additional statistical or financial information that the Boys and Girls Clubs of America may reasonably require.
“(e)Grant Awards.—In awarding subgrants under this section, the Boys and Girls Clubs of America shall consider—
the ability of the applicant to provide the intended services;
the history and establishment of the applicant in providing youth activities; and
the extent to which services will be provided in crime-prone areas and technologically underserved populations, and efforts to achieve an equitable geographic distribution of the grant awards.
“(f) Authorization of Appropriations.—
There is authorized to be appropriated $20,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2001 through 2006 to carry out this section.
“(2)Source of funds.—
Funds to carry out this section may be derived from the Violent Crime Reduction Trust Fund.
Amounts made available under this subsection shall remain available until expended.”
Establishment of Boys and Girls Clubs
Pub. L. 104–294, title IV, § 401, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3496, as amended by Pub. L. 105–133, § 1, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2568; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title I, § 1101, Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1791; Pub. L. 108–344, § 1, Oct. 18, 2004, 118 Stat. 1376, provided that:
“(a) Findings and Purpose.—
“(1)Findings.—The Congress finds that—
the Boys and Girls Clubs of America, chartered by an Act of Congress on December 10, 1991
[Pub. L. 102–199
, see Tables for classification], during its 90-year history as a national organization, has proven itself as a positive force in the communities it serves;
there are 1,810 Boys and Girls Clubs facilities throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, and the United States Virgin Islands, serving 2,420,000 youths nationwide;
71 percent of the young people who benefit from Boys and Girls Clubs programs live in our inner cities and urban areas;
Boys and Girls Clubs are locally run and have been exceptionally successful in balancing public funds with private sector donations and maximizing community involvement;
Boys and Girls Clubs are located in 289 public housing sites across the Nation;
public housing projects in which there is an active Boys and Girls Club have experienced a 25 percent reduction in the presence of crack cocaine, a 22 percent reduction in overall drug activity, and a 13 percent reduction in juvenile crime;
these results have been achieved in the face of national trends in which overall drug use by youth has increased 105 percent since 1992 and 10.9 percent of the Nation’s young people use drugs on a monthly basis; and
many public housing projects and other distressed areas are still underserved by Boys and Girls Clubs.
The purpose of this section is to provide adequate resources in the form of seed money for the Boys and Girls Clubs of America to establish 1,500 additional local clubs where needed, with particular emphasis placed on establishing clubs in public housing projects and distressed areas, and to ensure that there are a total of not less than 5,000 Boys and Girls Clubs of America facilities in operation not later than December 31, 2010, serving not less than 5,000,000 young people.
“(b)Definitions.—For purposes of this section—
the terms ‘public housing’ and ‘project’ have the same meanings as in section 3(b) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437a(b)
the term ‘distressed area’ means an urban, suburban, rural area, or Indian reservation with a population of high risk youth as defined in section 517 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 290bb–23
) of sufficient size to warrant the establishment of a Boys and Girls Club.
For each of the fiscal years 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, the Director of the Bureau of Justice Assistance of the Department of Justice shall make a grant to the Boys and Girls Clubs of America for the purpose of establishing and extending Boys and Girls Clubs facilities where needed, with particular emphasis placed on establishing clubs in and extending services to public housing projects and distressed areas.
“(2)Applications.—The Attorney General shall accept an application for a grant under this subsection if submitted by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America, and approve or deny the grant not later than 90 days after the date on which the application is submitted, if the application—
includes a long-term strategy to establish 1,500 additional Boys and Girls Clubs and detailed summary of those areas in which new facilities will be established, or in which existing facilities will be expanded to serve additional youths, during the next fiscal year;
includes a plan to ensure that there are a total of not less than 5,000 Boys and Girls Clubs of America facilities in operation before January 1, 2010;
certifies that there will be appropriate coordination with those communities where clubs will be located; and
explains the manner in which new facilities will operate without additional, direct Federal financial assistance to the Boys and Girls Clubs once assistance under this subsection is discontinued.
Not later than May 1 of each fiscal year for which amounts are made available to carry out this Act [see Tables for classification], the Attorney General shall submit to the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report that details the progress made under this Act in establishing Boys and Girls Clubs in public housing projects and other distressed areas, and the effectiveness of the programs in reducing drug abuse and juvenile crime.
“(e) Authorization of Appropriations.—
“(1)In general.—There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—
$80,000,000 for fiscal year 2006;
$85,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;
$90,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;
$95,000,000 for fiscal year 2009; and
$100,000,000 for fiscal year 2010.
“(f)Role Model Grants.—Of amounts made available under subsection (e) for any fiscal year—
not more than 5 percent may be used to provide a grant to the Boys and Girls Clubs of America for administrative, travel, and other costs associated with a national role-model speaking tour program; and
no amount may be used to compensate speakers other than to reimburse speakers for reasonable travel and accommodation costs associated with the program described in paragraph (1).”
[Effective Aug. 1, 2000, all functions of Director of Bureau of Justice Assistance, other than those enumerated in section 3742(3) to (6) of this title, transferred to Assistant Attorney General for Office of Justice Programs, see section 1000(a)(1) [title I, § 108(b)] of Pub. L. 106–113, set out as a note under section 3741 of this title.]